sklearn.linear_model
.Perceptron¶

class
sklearn.linear_model.
Perceptron
(penalty=None, alpha=0.0001, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=1000, tol=0.001, shuffle=True, verbose=0, eta0=1.0, n_jobs=None, random_state=0, early_stopping=False, validation_fraction=0.1, n_iter_no_change=5, class_weight=None, warm_start=False)[source]¶ Read more in the User Guide.
 Parameters
 penaltyNone, ‘l2’ or ‘l1’ or ‘elasticnet’
The penalty (aka regularization term) to be used. Defaults to None.
 alphafloat
Constant that multiplies the regularization term if regularization is used. Defaults to 0.0001
 fit_interceptbool
Whether the intercept should be estimated or not. If False, the data is assumed to be already centered. Defaults to True.
 max_iterint, optional (default=1000)
The maximum number of passes over the training data (aka epochs). It only impacts the behavior in the
fit
method, and not thepartial_fit
method.New in version 0.19.
 tolfloat or None, optional (default=1e3)
The stopping criterion. If it is not None, the iterations will stop when (loss > previous_loss  tol).
New in version 0.19.
 shufflebool, default=True
Whether or not the training data should be shuffled after each epoch.
 verboseinteger, default=0
The verbosity level
 eta0double
Constant by which the updates are multiplied. Defaults to 1.
 n_jobsint or None, optional (default=None)
The number of CPUs to use to do the OVA (One Versus All, for multiclass problems) computation.
None
means 1 unless in ajoblib.parallel_backend
context.1
means using all processors. See Glossary for more details. random_stateint, RandomState instance or None, optional, default None
The seed of the pseudo random number generator to use when shuffling the data. If int, random_state is the seed used by the random number generator; If RandomState instance, random_state is the random number generator; If None, the random number generator is the RandomState instance used by
np.random
. early_stoppingbool, default=False
Whether to use early stopping to terminate training when validation. score is not improving. If set to True, it will automatically set aside a stratified fraction of training data as validation and terminate training when validation score is not improving by at least tol for n_iter_no_change consecutive epochs.
New in version 0.20.
 validation_fractionfloat, default=0.1
The proportion of training data to set aside as validation set for early stopping. Must be between 0 and 1. Only used if early_stopping is True.
New in version 0.20.
 n_iter_no_changeint, default=5
Number of iterations with no improvement to wait before early stopping.
New in version 0.20.
 class_weightdict, {class_label: weight} or “balanced” or None, optional
Preset for the class_weight fit parameter.
Weights associated with classes. If not given, all classes are supposed to have weight one.
The “balanced” mode uses the values of y to automatically adjust weights inversely proportional to class frequencies in the input data as
n_samples / (n_classes * np.bincount(y))
 warm_startbool, default=False
When set to True, reuse the solution of the previous call to fit as initialization, otherwise, just erase the previous solution. See the Glossary.
 Attributes
 coef_array, shape = [1, n_features] if n_classes == 2 else [n_classes, n_features]
Weights assigned to the features.
 intercept_array, shape = [1] if n_classes == 2 else [n_classes]
Constants in decision function.
 n_iter_int
The actual number of iterations to reach the stopping criterion. For multiclass fits, it is the maximum over every binary fit.
 classes_array of shape = (n_classes,)
The unique classes labels.
 t_int
Number of weight updates performed during training. Same as
(n_iter_ * n_samples)
.
See also
Notes
Perceptron
is a classification algorithm which shares the same underlying implementation withSGDClassifier
. In fact,Perceptron()
is equivalent toSGDClassifier(loss="perceptron", eta0=1, learning_rate="constant", penalty=None)
.References
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perceptron and references therein.
Examples
>>> from sklearn.datasets import load_digits >>> from sklearn.linear_model import Perceptron >>> X, y = load_digits(return_X_y=True) >>> clf = Perceptron(tol=1e3, random_state=0) >>> clf.fit(X, y) Perceptron() >>> clf.score(X, y) 0.939...
Methods
decision_function
(self, X)Predict confidence scores for samples.
densify
(self)Convert coefficient matrix to dense array format.
fit
(self, X, y[, coef_init, intercept_init, …])Fit linear model with Stochastic Gradient Descent.
get_params
(self[, deep])Get parameters for this estimator.
partial_fit
(self, X, y[, classes, sample_weight])Perform one epoch of stochastic gradient descent on given samples.
predict
(self, X)Predict class labels for samples in X.
score
(self, X, y[, sample_weight])Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
set_params
(self, \*args, \*\*kwargs)Set the parameters of this estimator.
sparsify
(self)Convert coefficient matrix to sparse format.

__init__
(self, penalty=None, alpha=0.0001, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=1000, tol=0.001, shuffle=True, verbose=0, eta0=1.0, n_jobs=None, random_state=0, early_stopping=False, validation_fraction=0.1, n_iter_no_change=5, class_weight=None, warm_start=False)[source]¶ Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

decision_function
(self, X)[source]¶ Predict confidence scores for samples.
The confidence score for a sample is the signed distance of that sample to the hyperplane.
 Parameters
 Xarray_like or sparse matrix, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Samples.
 Returns
 array, shape=(n_samples,) if n_classes == 2 else (n_samples, n_classes)
Confidence scores per (sample, class) combination. In the binary case, confidence score for self.classes_[1] where >0 means this class would be predicted.

densify
(self)[source]¶ Convert coefficient matrix to dense array format.
Converts the
coef_
member (back) to a numpy.ndarray. This is the default format ofcoef_
and is required for fitting, so calling this method is only required on models that have previously been sparsified; otherwise, it is a noop. Returns
 selfestimator

fit
(self, X, y, coef_init=None, intercept_init=None, sample_weight=None)[source]¶ Fit linear model with Stochastic Gradient Descent.
 Parameters
 X{arraylike, sparse matrix}, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Training data
 ynumpy array, shape (n_samples,)
Target values
 coef_initarray, shape (n_classes, n_features)
The initial coefficients to warmstart the optimization.
 intercept_initarray, shape (n_classes,)
The initial intercept to warmstart the optimization.
 sample_weightarraylike, shape (n_samples,), optional
Weights applied to individual samples. If not provided, uniform weights are assumed. These weights will be multiplied with class_weight (passed through the constructor) if class_weight is specified
 Returns
 selfreturns an instance of self.

get_params
(self, deep=True)[source]¶ Get parameters for this estimator.
 Parameters
 deepboolean, optional
If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.
 Returns
 paramsmapping of string to any
Parameter names mapped to their values.

partial_fit
(self, X, y, classes=None, sample_weight=None)[source]¶ Perform one epoch of stochastic gradient descent on given samples.
Internally, this method uses
max_iter = 1
. Therefore, it is not guaranteed that a minimum of the cost function is reached after calling it once. Matters such as objective convergence and early stopping should be handled by the user. Parameters
 X{arraylike, sparse matrix}, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Subset of the training data
 ynumpy array, shape (n_samples,)
Subset of the target values
 classesarray, shape (n_classes,)
Classes across all calls to partial_fit. Can be obtained by via
np.unique(y_all)
, where y_all is the target vector of the entire dataset. This argument is required for the first call to partial_fit and can be omitted in the subsequent calls. Note that y doesn’t need to contain all labels inclasses
. sample_weightarraylike, shape (n_samples,), optional
Weights applied to individual samples. If not provided, uniform weights are assumed.
 Returns
 selfreturns an instance of self.

predict
(self, X)[source]¶ Predict class labels for samples in X.
 Parameters
 Xarray_like or sparse matrix, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Samples.
 Returns
 Carray, shape [n_samples]
Predicted class label per sample.

score
(self, X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]¶ Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
In multilabel classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.
 Parameters
 Xarraylike, shape = (n_samples, n_features)
Test samples.
 yarraylike, shape = (n_samples) or (n_samples, n_outputs)
True labels for X.
 sample_weightarraylike, shape = [n_samples], optional
Sample weights.
 Returns
 scorefloat
Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.

set_params
(self, *args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Set the parameters of this estimator.
The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as pipelines). The latter have parameters of the form
<component>__<parameter>
so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object. Returns
 self

sparsify
(self)[source]¶ Convert coefficient matrix to sparse format.
Converts the
coef_
member to a scipy.sparse matrix, which for L1regularized models can be much more memory and storageefficient than the usual numpy.ndarray representation.The
intercept_
member is not converted. Returns
 selfestimator
Notes
For nonsparse models, i.e. when there are not many zeros in
coef_
, this may actually increase memory usage, so use this method with care. A rule of thumb is that the number of zero elements, which can be computed with(coef_ == 0).sum()
, must be more than 50% for this to provide significant benefits.After calling this method, further fitting with the partial_fit method (if any) will not work until you call densify.