sklearn.linear_model
.Perceptron¶

class
sklearn.linear_model.
Perceptron
(penalty=None, alpha=0.0001, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=1000, tol=0.001, shuffle=True, verbose=0, eta0=1.0, n_jobs=None, random_state=0, early_stopping=False, validation_fraction=0.1, n_iter_no_change=5, class_weight=None, warm_start=False)[source]¶ Read more in the User Guide.
Parameters:  penalty : None, ‘l2’ or ‘l1’ or ‘elasticnet’
The penalty (aka regularization term) to be used. Defaults to None.
 alpha : float
Constant that multiplies the regularization term if regularization is used. Defaults to 0.0001
 fit_intercept : bool
Whether the intercept should be estimated or not. If False, the data is assumed to be already centered. Defaults to True.
 max_iter : int, optional (default=1000)
The maximum number of passes over the training data (aka epochs). It only impacts the behavior in the
fit
method, and not thepartial_fit
.New in version 0.19.
 tol : float or None, optional (default=1e3)
The stopping criterion. If it is not None, the iterations will stop when (loss > previous_loss  tol).
New in version 0.19.
 shuffle : bool, optional, default True
Whether or not the training data should be shuffled after each epoch.
 verbose : integer, optional
The verbosity level
 eta0 : double
Constant by which the updates are multiplied. Defaults to 1.
 n_jobs : int or None, optional (default=None)
The number of CPUs to use to do the OVA (One Versus All, for multiclass problems) computation.
None
means 1 unless in ajoblib.parallel_backend
context.1
means using all processors. See Glossary for more details. random_state : int, RandomState instance or None, optional, default None
The seed of the pseudo random number generator to use when shuffling the data. If int, random_state is the seed used by the random number generator; If RandomState instance, random_state is the random number generator; If None, the random number generator is the RandomState instance used by
np.random
. early_stopping : bool, default=False
Whether to use early stopping to terminate training when validation. score is not improving. If set to True, it will automatically set aside a stratified fraction of training data as validation and terminate training when validation score is not improving by at least tol for n_iter_no_change consecutive epochs.
New in version 0.20.
 validation_fraction : float, default=0.1
The proportion of training data to set aside as validation set for early stopping. Must be between 0 and 1. Only used if early_stopping is True.
New in version 0.20.
 n_iter_no_change : int, default=5
Number of iterations with no improvement to wait before early stopping.
New in version 0.20.
 class_weight : dict, {class_label: weight} or “balanced” or None, optional
Preset for the class_weight fit parameter.
Weights associated with classes. If not given, all classes are supposed to have weight one.
The “balanced” mode uses the values of y to automatically adjust weights inversely proportional to class frequencies in the input data as
n_samples / (n_classes * np.bincount(y))
 warm_start : bool, optional
When set to True, reuse the solution of the previous call to fit as initialization, otherwise, just erase the previous solution. See the Glossary.
Attributes:  coef_ : array, shape = [1, n_features] if n_classes == 2 else [n_classes, n_features]
Weights assigned to the features.
 intercept_ : array, shape = [1] if n_classes == 2 else [n_classes]
Constants in decision function.
 n_iter_ : int
The actual number of iterations to reach the stopping criterion. For multiclass fits, it is the maximum over every binary fit.
See also
Notes
Perceptron
is a classification algorithm which shares the same underlying implementation withSGDClassifier
. In fact,Perceptron()
is equivalent toSGDClassifier(loss="perceptron", eta0=1, learning_rate="constant", penalty=None)
.References
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perceptron and references therein.
Examples
>>> from sklearn.datasets import load_digits >>> from sklearn.linear_model import Perceptron >>> X, y = load_digits(return_X_y=True) >>> clf = Perceptron(tol=1e3, random_state=0) >>> clf.fit(X, y) Perceptron(alpha=0.0001, class_weight=None, early_stopping=False, eta0=1.0, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=1000, n_iter_no_change=5, n_jobs=None, penalty=None, random_state=0, shuffle=True, tol=0.001, validation_fraction=0.1, verbose=0, warm_start=False) >>> clf.score(X, y) 0.939...
Methods
decision_function
(self, X)Predict confidence scores for samples. densify
(self)Convert coefficient matrix to dense array format. fit
(self, X, y[, coef_init, intercept_init, …])Fit linear model with Stochastic Gradient Descent. get_params
(self[, deep])Get parameters for this estimator. partial_fit
(self, X, y[, classes, sample_weight])Perform one epoch of stochastic gradient descent on given samples. predict
(self, X)Predict class labels for samples in X. score
(self, X, y[, sample_weight])Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels. set_params
(self, \*args, \*\*kwargs)sparsify
(self)Convert coefficient matrix to sparse format. 
__init__
(self, penalty=None, alpha=0.0001, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=1000, tol=0.001, shuffle=True, verbose=0, eta0=1.0, n_jobs=None, random_state=0, early_stopping=False, validation_fraction=0.1, n_iter_no_change=5, class_weight=None, warm_start=False)[source]¶

decision_function
(self, X)[source]¶ Predict confidence scores for samples.
The confidence score for a sample is the signed distance of that sample to the hyperplane.
Parameters:  X : array_like or sparse matrix, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Samples.
Returns:  array, shape=(n_samples,) if n_classes == 2 else (n_samples, n_classes)
Confidence scores per (sample, class) combination. In the binary case, confidence score for self.classes_[1] where >0 means this class would be predicted.

densify
(self)[source]¶ Convert coefficient matrix to dense array format.
Converts the
coef_
member (back) to a numpy.ndarray. This is the default format ofcoef_
and is required for fitting, so calling this method is only required on models that have previously been sparsified; otherwise, it is a noop.Returns:  self : estimator

fit
(self, X, y, coef_init=None, intercept_init=None, sample_weight=None)[source]¶ Fit linear model with Stochastic Gradient Descent.
Parameters:  X : {arraylike, sparse matrix}, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Training data
 y : numpy array, shape (n_samples,)
Target values
 coef_init : array, shape (n_classes, n_features)
The initial coefficients to warmstart the optimization.
 intercept_init : array, shape (n_classes,)
The initial intercept to warmstart the optimization.
 sample_weight : arraylike, shape (n_samples,), optional
Weights applied to individual samples. If not provided, uniform weights are assumed. These weights will be multiplied with class_weight (passed through the constructor) if class_weight is specified
Returns:  self : returns an instance of self.

get_params
(self, deep=True)[source]¶ Get parameters for this estimator.
Parameters:  deep : boolean, optional
If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.
Returns:  params : mapping of string to any
Parameter names mapped to their values.

partial_fit
(self, X, y, classes=None, sample_weight=None)[source]¶ Perform one epoch of stochastic gradient descent on given samples.
Internally, this method uses
max_iter = 1
. Therefore, it is not guaranteed that a minimum of the cost function is reached after calling it once. Matters such as objective convergence and early stopping should be handled by the user.Parameters:  X : {arraylike, sparse matrix}, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Subset of the training data
 y : numpy array, shape (n_samples,)
Subset of the target values
 classes : array, shape (n_classes,)
Classes across all calls to partial_fit. Can be obtained by via
np.unique(y_all)
, where y_all is the target vector of the entire dataset. This argument is required for the first call to partial_fit and can be omitted in the subsequent calls. Note that y doesn’t need to contain all labels inclasses
. sample_weight : arraylike, shape (n_samples,), optional
Weights applied to individual samples. If not provided, uniform weights are assumed.
Returns:  self : returns an instance of self.

predict
(self, X)[source]¶ Predict class labels for samples in X.
Parameters:  X : array_like or sparse matrix, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Samples.
Returns:  C : array, shape [n_samples]
Predicted class label per sample.

score
(self, X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]¶ Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
In multilabel classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.
Parameters:  X : arraylike, shape = (n_samples, n_features)
Test samples.
 y : arraylike, shape = (n_samples) or (n_samples, n_outputs)
True labels for X.
 sample_weight : arraylike, shape = [n_samples], optional
Sample weights.
Returns:  score : float
Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.

sparsify
(self)[source]¶ Convert coefficient matrix to sparse format.
Converts the
coef_
member to a scipy.sparse matrix, which for L1regularized models can be much more memory and storageefficient than the usual numpy.ndarray representation.The
intercept_
member is not converted.Returns:  self : estimator
Notes
For nonsparse models, i.e. when there are not many zeros in
coef_
, this may actually increase memory usage, so use this method with care. A rule of thumb is that the number of zero elements, which can be computed with(coef_ == 0).sum()
, must be more than 50% for this to provide significant benefits.After calling this method, further fitting with the partial_fit method (if any) will not work until you call densify.