sklearn.linear_model
.RidgeClassifier¶

class
sklearn.linear_model.
RidgeClassifier
(alpha=1.0, *, fit_intercept=True, normalize=False, copy_X=True, max_iter=None, tol=0.001, class_weight=None, solver='auto', random_state=None)[source]¶ Classifier using Ridge regression.
This classifier first converts the target values into
{1, 1}
and then treats the problem as a regression task (multioutput regression in the multiclass case).Read more in the User Guide.
 Parameters
 alphafloat, default=1.0
Regularization strength; must be a positive float. Regularization improves the conditioning of the problem and reduces the variance of the estimates. Larger values specify stronger regularization. Alpha corresponds to
1 / (2C)
in other linear models such asLogisticRegression
orsklearn.svm.LinearSVC
. fit_interceptbool, default=True
Whether to calculate the intercept for this model. If set to false, no intercept will be used in calculations (e.g. data is expected to be already centered).
 normalizebool, default=False
This parameter is ignored when
fit_intercept
is set to False. If True, the regressors X will be normalized before regression by subtracting the mean and dividing by the l2norm. If you wish to standardize, please usesklearn.preprocessing.StandardScaler
before callingfit
on an estimator withnormalize=False
. copy_Xbool, default=True
If True, X will be copied; else, it may be overwritten.
 max_iterint, default=None
Maximum number of iterations for conjugate gradient solver. The default value is determined by scipy.sparse.linalg.
 tolfloat, default=1e3
Precision of the solution.
 class_weightdict or ‘balanced’, default=None
Weights associated with classes in the form
{class_label: weight}
. If not given, all classes are supposed to have weight one.The “balanced” mode uses the values of y to automatically adjust weights inversely proportional to class frequencies in the input data as
n_samples / (n_classes * np.bincount(y))
. solver{‘auto’, ‘svd’, ‘cholesky’, ‘lsqr’, ‘sparse_cg’, ‘sag’, ‘saga’}, default=’auto’
Solver to use in the computational routines:
‘auto’ chooses the solver automatically based on the type of data.
‘svd’ uses a Singular Value Decomposition of X to compute the Ridge coefficients. More stable for singular matrices than ‘cholesky’.
‘cholesky’ uses the standard scipy.linalg.solve function to obtain a closedform solution.
‘sparse_cg’ uses the conjugate gradient solver as found in scipy.sparse.linalg.cg. As an iterative algorithm, this solver is more appropriate than ‘cholesky’ for largescale data (possibility to set
tol
andmax_iter
).‘lsqr’ uses the dedicated regularized leastsquares routine scipy.sparse.linalg.lsqr. It is the fastest and uses an iterative procedure.
‘sag’ uses a Stochastic Average Gradient descent, and ‘saga’ uses its unbiased and more flexible version named SAGA. Both methods use an iterative procedure, and are often faster than other solvers when both n_samples and n_features are large. Note that ‘sag’ and ‘saga’ fast convergence is only guaranteed on features with approximately the same scale. You can preprocess the data with a scaler from sklearn.preprocessing.
New in version 0.17: Stochastic Average Gradient descent solver.
New in version 0.19: SAGA solver.
 random_stateint, RandomState instance, default=None
Used when
solver
== ‘sag’ or ‘saga’ to shuffle the data. See Glossary for details.
 Attributes
 coef_ndarray of shape (1, n_features) or (n_classes, n_features)
Coefficient of the features in the decision function.
coef_
is of shape (1, n_features) when the given problem is binary. intercept_float or ndarray of shape (n_targets,)
Independent term in decision function. Set to 0.0 if
fit_intercept = False
. n_iter_None or ndarray of shape (n_targets,)
Actual number of iterations for each target. Available only for sag and lsqr solvers. Other solvers will return None.
 classes_ndarray of shape (n_classes,)
The classes labels.
See also
Ridge
Ridge regression.
RidgeClassifierCV
Ridge classifier with builtin cross validation.
Notes
For multiclass classification, n_class classifiers are trained in a oneversusall approach. Concretely, this is implemented by taking advantage of the multivariate response support in Ridge.
Examples
>>> from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer >>> from sklearn.linear_model import RidgeClassifier >>> X, y = load_breast_cancer(return_X_y=True) >>> clf = RidgeClassifier().fit(X, y) >>> clf.score(X, y) 0.9595...
Methods
decision_function
(self, X)Predict confidence scores for samples.
fit
(self, X, y[, sample_weight])Fit Ridge classifier model.
get_params
(self[, deep])Get parameters for this estimator.
predict
(self, X)Predict class labels for samples in X.
score
(self, X, y[, sample_weight])Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
set_params
(self, \*\*params)Set the parameters of this estimator.

__init__
(self, alpha=1.0, *, fit_intercept=True, normalize=False, copy_X=True, max_iter=None, tol=0.001, class_weight=None, solver='auto', random_state=None)[source]¶ Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

decision_function
(self, X)[source]¶ Predict confidence scores for samples.
The confidence score for a sample is the signed distance of that sample to the hyperplane.
 Parameters
 Xarray_like or sparse matrix, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Samples.
 Returns
 array, shape=(n_samples,) if n_classes == 2 else (n_samples, n_classes)
Confidence scores per (sample, class) combination. In the binary case, confidence score for self.classes_[1] where >0 means this class would be predicted.

fit
(self, X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]¶ Fit Ridge classifier model.
 Parameters
 X{ndarray, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)
Training data.
 yndarray of shape (n_samples,)
Target values.
 sample_weightfloat or ndarray of shape (n_samples,), default=None
Individual weights for each sample. If given a float, every sample will have the same weight.
New in version 0.17: sample_weight support to Classifier.
 Returns
 selfobject
Instance of the estimator.

get_params
(self, deep=True)[source]¶ Get parameters for this estimator.
 Parameters
 deepbool, default=True
If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.
 Returns
 paramsmapping of string to any
Parameter names mapped to their values.

predict
(self, X)[source]¶ Predict class labels for samples in X.
 Parameters
 Xarray_like or sparse matrix, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Samples.
 Returns
 Carray, shape [n_samples]
Predicted class label per sample.

score
(self, X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]¶ Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
In multilabel classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.
 Parameters
 Xarraylike of shape (n_samples, n_features)
Test samples.
 yarraylike of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)
True labels for X.
 sample_weightarraylike of shape (n_samples,), default=None
Sample weights.
 Returns
 scorefloat
Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.

set_params
(self, **params)[source]¶ Set the parameters of this estimator.
The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as pipelines). The latter have parameters of the form
<component>__<parameter>
so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object. Parameters
 **paramsdict
Estimator parameters.
 Returns
 selfobject
Estimator instance.