sklearn.tree.DecisionTreeClassifier

class sklearn.tree.DecisionTreeClassifier(criterion='gini', splitter='best', max_depth=None, min_samples_split=2, min_samples_leaf=1, min_weight_fraction_leaf=0.0, max_features=None, random_state=None, max_leaf_nodes=None, min_impurity_decrease=0.0, min_impurity_split=None, class_weight=None, presort='deprecated', ccp_alpha=0.0)[source]

A decision tree classifier.

Read more in the User Guide.

Parameters
criterionstring, optional (default=”gini”)

The function to measure the quality of a split. Supported criteria are “gini” for the Gini impurity and “entropy” for the information gain.

splitterstring, optional (default=”best”)

The strategy used to choose the split at each node. Supported strategies are “best” to choose the best split and “random” to choose the best random split.

max_depthint or None, optional (default=None)

The maximum depth of the tree. If None, then nodes are expanded until all leaves are pure or until all leaves contain less than min_samples_split samples.

min_samples_splitint, float, optional (default=2)

The minimum number of samples required to split an internal node:

  • If int, then consider min_samples_split as the minimum number.

  • If float, then min_samples_split is a fraction and ceil(min_samples_split * n_samples) are the minimum number of samples for each split.

Changed in version 0.18: Added float values for fractions.

min_samples_leafint, float, optional (default=1)

The minimum number of samples required to be at a leaf node. A split point at any depth will only be considered if it leaves at least min_samples_leaf training samples in each of the left and right branches. This may have the effect of smoothing the model, especially in regression.

  • If int, then consider min_samples_leaf as the minimum number.

  • If float, then min_samples_leaf is a fraction and ceil(min_samples_leaf * n_samples) are the minimum number of samples for each node.

Changed in version 0.18: Added float values for fractions.

min_weight_fraction_leaffloat, optional (default=0.)

The minimum weighted fraction of the sum total of weights (of all the input samples) required to be at a leaf node. Samples have equal weight when sample_weight is not provided.

max_featuresint, float, string or None, optional (default=None)

The number of features to consider when looking for the best split:

  • If int, then consider max_features features at each split.

  • If float, then max_features is a fraction and int(max_features * n_features) features are considered at each split.

  • If “auto”, then max_features=sqrt(n_features).

  • If “sqrt”, then max_features=sqrt(n_features).

  • If “log2”, then max_features=log2(n_features).

  • If None, then max_features=n_features.

Note: the search for a split does not stop until at least one valid partition of the node samples is found, even if it requires to effectively inspect more than max_features features.

random_stateint, RandomState instance or None, optional (default=None)

If int, random_state is the seed used by the random number generator; If RandomState instance, random_state is the random number generator; If None, the random number generator is the RandomState instance used by np.random.

max_leaf_nodesint or None, optional (default=None)

Grow a tree with max_leaf_nodes in best-first fashion. Best nodes are defined as relative reduction in impurity. If None then unlimited number of leaf nodes.

min_impurity_decreasefloat, optional (default=0.)

A node will be split if this split induces a decrease of the impurity greater than or equal to this value.

The weighted impurity decrease equation is the following:

N_t / N * (impurity - N_t_R / N_t * right_impurity
                    - N_t_L / N_t * left_impurity)

where N is the total number of samples, N_t is the number of samples at the current node, N_t_L is the number of samples in the left child, and N_t_R is the number of samples in the right child.

N, N_t, N_t_R and N_t_L all refer to the weighted sum, if sample_weight is passed.

New in version 0.19.

min_impurity_splitfloat, (default=1e-7)

Threshold for early stopping in tree growth. A node will split if its impurity is above the threshold, otherwise it is a leaf.

Deprecated since version 0.19: min_impurity_split has been deprecated in favor of min_impurity_decrease in 0.19. The default value of min_impurity_split will change from 1e-7 to 0 in 0.23 and it will be removed in 0.25. Use min_impurity_decrease instead.

class_weightdict, list of dicts, “balanced” or None, default=None

Weights associated with classes in the form {class_label: weight}. If not given, all classes are supposed to have weight one. For multi-output problems, a list of dicts can be provided in the same order as the columns of y.

Note that for multioutput (including multilabel) weights should be defined for each class of every column in its own dict. For example, for four-class multilabel classification weights should be [{0: 1, 1: 1}, {0: 1, 1: 5}, {0: 1, 1: 1}, {0: 1, 1: 1}] instead of [{1:1}, {2:5}, {3:1}, {4:1}].

The “balanced” mode uses the values of y to automatically adjust weights inversely proportional to class frequencies in the input data as n_samples / (n_classes * np.bincount(y))

For multi-output, the weights of each column of y will be multiplied.

Note that these weights will be multiplied with sample_weight (passed through the fit method) if sample_weight is specified.

presortdeprecated, default=’deprecated’

This parameter is deprecated and will be removed in v0.24.

Deprecated since version 0.22.

ccp_alphanon-negative float, optional (default=0.0)

Complexity parameter used for Minimal Cost-Complexity Pruning. The subtree with the largest cost complexity that is smaller than ccp_alpha will be chosen. By default, no pruning is performed. See Minimal Cost-Complexity Pruning for details.

New in version 0.22.

Attributes
classes_array of shape = [n_classes] or a list of such arrays

The classes labels (single output problem), or a list of arrays of class labels (multi-output problem).

feature_importances_array of shape = [n_features]

Return the feature importances.

max_features_int,

The inferred value of max_features.

n_classes_int or list

The number of classes (for single output problems), or a list containing the number of classes for each output (for multi-output problems).

n_features_int

The number of features when fit is performed.

n_outputs_int

The number of outputs when fit is performed.

tree_Tree object

The underlying Tree object. Please refer to help(sklearn.tree._tree.Tree) for attributes of Tree object and Understanding the decision tree structure for basic usage of these attributes.

Notes

The default values for the parameters controlling the size of the trees (e.g. max_depth, min_samples_leaf, etc.) lead to fully grown and unpruned trees which can potentially be very large on some data sets. To reduce memory consumption, the complexity and size of the trees should be controlled by setting those parameter values.

The features are always randomly permuted at each split. Therefore, the best found split may vary, even with the same training data and max_features=n_features, if the improvement of the criterion is identical for several splits enumerated during the search of the best split. To obtain a deterministic behaviour during fitting, random_state has to be fixed.

References

Rb1ec977cd307-1

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_tree_learning

Rb1ec977cd307-2

L. Breiman, J. Friedman, R. Olshen, and C. Stone, “Classification and Regression Trees”, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1984.

Rb1ec977cd307-3

T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani and J. Friedman. “Elements of Statistical Learning”, Springer, 2009.

Rb1ec977cd307-4

L. Breiman, and A. Cutler, “Random Forests”, https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~breiman/RandomForests/cc_home.htm

Examples

>>> from sklearn.datasets import load_iris
>>> from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score
>>> from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier
>>> clf = DecisionTreeClassifier(random_state=0)
>>> iris = load_iris()
>>> cross_val_score(clf, iris.data, iris.target, cv=10)
...                             # doctest: +SKIP
...
array([ 1.     ,  0.93...,  0.86...,  0.93...,  0.93...,
        0.93...,  0.93...,  1.     ,  0.93...,  1.      ])

Methods

apply(self, X[, check_input])

Returns the index of the leaf that each sample is predicted as.

cost_complexity_pruning_path(self, X, y[, …])

Compute the pruning path during Minimal Cost-Complexity Pruning.

decision_path(self, X[, check_input])

Return the decision path in the tree

fit(self, X, y[, sample_weight, …])

Build a decision tree classifier from the training set (X, y).

get_depth(self)

Returns the depth of the decision tree.

get_n_leaves(self)

Returns the number of leaves of the decision tree.

get_params(self[, deep])

Get parameters for this estimator.

predict(self, X[, check_input])

Predict class or regression value for X.

predict_log_proba(self, X)

Predict class log-probabilities of the input samples X.

predict_proba(self, X[, check_input])

Predict class probabilities of the input samples X.

score(self, X, y[, sample_weight])

Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

set_params(self, \*\*params)

Set the parameters of this estimator.

__init__(self, criterion='gini', splitter='best', max_depth=None, min_samples_split=2, min_samples_leaf=1, min_weight_fraction_leaf=0.0, max_features=None, random_state=None, max_leaf_nodes=None, min_impurity_decrease=0.0, min_impurity_split=None, class_weight=None, presort='deprecated', ccp_alpha=0.0)[source]

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

apply(self, X, check_input=True)[source]

Returns the index of the leaf that each sample is predicted as.

New in version 0.17.

Parameters
Xarray_like or sparse matrix, shape = [n_samples, n_features]

The input samples. Internally, it will be converted to dtype=np.float32 and if a sparse matrix is provided to a sparse csr_matrix.

check_inputboolean, (default=True)

Allow to bypass several input checking. Don’t use this parameter unless you know what you do.

Returns
X_leavesarray_like, shape = [n_samples,]

For each datapoint x in X, return the index of the leaf x ends up in. Leaves are numbered within [0; self.tree_.node_count), possibly with gaps in the numbering.

cost_complexity_pruning_path(self, X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]

Compute the pruning path during Minimal Cost-Complexity Pruning.

See ref:minimal_cost_complexity_pruning` for details on the pruning process.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The training input samples. Internally, it will be converted to dtype=np.float32 and if a sparse matrix is provided to a sparse csc_matrix.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

The target values (class labels) as integers or strings.

sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None

Sample weights. If None, then samples are equally weighted. Splits that would create child nodes with net zero or negative weight are ignored while searching for a split in each node. Splits are also ignored if they would result in any single class carrying a negative weight in either child node.

Returns
ccp_pathBunch

Dictionary-like object, with attributes:

ccp_alphasndarray

Effective alphas of subtree during pruning.

impuritiesndarray

Sum of the impurities of the subtree leaves for the corresponding alpha value in ccp_alphas.

decision_path(self, X, check_input=True)[source]

Return the decision path in the tree

New in version 0.18.

Parameters
Xarray_like or sparse matrix, shape = [n_samples, n_features]

The input samples. Internally, it will be converted to dtype=np.float32 and if a sparse matrix is provided to a sparse csr_matrix.

check_inputboolean, (default=True)

Allow to bypass several input checking. Don’t use this parameter unless you know what you do.

Returns
indicatorsparse csr array, shape = [n_samples, n_nodes]

Return a node indicator matrix where non zero elements indicates that the samples goes through the nodes.

property feature_importances_

Return the feature importances.

The importance of a feature is computed as the (normalized) total reduction of the criterion brought by that feature. It is also known as the Gini importance.

Returns
feature_importances_array, shape = [n_features]
fit(self, X, y, sample_weight=None, check_input=True, X_idx_sorted=None)[source]

Build a decision tree classifier from the training set (X, y).

Parameters
Xarray-like or sparse matrix, shape = [n_samples, n_features]

The training input samples. Internally, it will be converted to dtype=np.float32 and if a sparse matrix is provided to a sparse csc_matrix.

yarray-like, shape = [n_samples] or [n_samples, n_outputs]

The target values (class labels) as integers or strings.

sample_weightarray-like, shape = [n_samples] or None

Sample weights. If None, then samples are equally weighted. Splits that would create child nodes with net zero or negative weight are ignored while searching for a split in each node. Splits are also ignored if they would result in any single class carrying a negative weight in either child node.

check_inputboolean, (default=True)

Allow to bypass several input checking. Don’t use this parameter unless you know what you do.

X_idx_sortedarray-like, shape = [n_samples, n_features], optional

The indexes of the sorted training input samples. If many tree are grown on the same dataset, this allows the ordering to be cached between trees. If None, the data will be sorted here. Don’t use this parameter unless you know what to do.

Returns
selfobject
get_depth(self)[source]

Returns the depth of the decision tree.

The depth of a tree is the maximum distance between the root and any leaf.

get_n_leaves(self)[source]

Returns the number of leaves of the decision tree.

get_params(self, deep=True)[source]

Get parameters for this estimator.

Parameters
deepboolean, optional

If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.

Returns
paramsmapping of string to any

Parameter names mapped to their values.

predict(self, X, check_input=True)[source]

Predict class or regression value for X.

For a classification model, the predicted class for each sample in X is returned. For a regression model, the predicted value based on X is returned.

Parameters
Xarray-like or sparse matrix of shape = [n_samples, n_features]

The input samples. Internally, it will be converted to dtype=np.float32 and if a sparse matrix is provided to a sparse csr_matrix.

check_inputboolean, (default=True)

Allow to bypass several input checking. Don’t use this parameter unless you know what you do.

Returns
yarray of shape = [n_samples] or [n_samples, n_outputs]

The predicted classes, or the predict values.

predict_log_proba(self, X)[source]

Predict class log-probabilities of the input samples X.

Parameters
Xarray-like or sparse matrix of shape = [n_samples, n_features]

The input samples. Internally, it will be converted to dtype=np.float32 and if a sparse matrix is provided to a sparse csr_matrix.

Returns
parray of shape = [n_samples, n_classes], or a list of n_outputs

such arrays if n_outputs > 1. The class log-probabilities of the input samples. The order of the classes corresponds to that in the attribute classes_.

predict_proba(self, X, check_input=True)[source]

Predict class probabilities of the input samples X.

The predicted class probability is the fraction of samples of the same class in a leaf.

check_inputboolean, (default=True)

Allow to bypass several input checking. Don’t use this parameter unless you know what you do.

Parameters
Xarray-like or sparse matrix of shape = [n_samples, n_features]

The input samples. Internally, it will be converted to dtype=np.float32 and if a sparse matrix is provided to a sparse csr_matrix.

check_inputbool

Run check_array on X.

Returns
parray of shape = [n_samples, n_classes], or a list of n_outputs

such arrays if n_outputs > 1. The class probabilities of the input samples. The order of the classes corresponds to that in the attribute classes_.

score(self, X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]

Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

In multi-label classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.

Parameters
Xarray-like, shape = (n_samples, n_features)

Test samples.

yarray-like, shape = (n_samples) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

True labels for X.

sample_weightarray-like, shape = [n_samples], optional

Sample weights.

Returns
scorefloat

Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.

set_params(self, **params)[source]

Set the parameters of this estimator.

The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as pipelines). The latter have parameters of the form <component>__<parameter> so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object.

Returns
self