sklearn.ensemble.BaggingClassifier

class sklearn.ensemble.BaggingClassifier(base_estimator=None, n_estimators=10, *, max_samples=1.0, max_features=1.0, bootstrap=True, bootstrap_features=False, oob_score=False, warm_start=False, n_jobs=None, random_state=None, verbose=0)[source]

A Bagging classifier.

A Bagging classifier is an ensemble meta-estimator that fits base classifiers each on random subsets of the original dataset and then aggregate their individual predictions (either by voting or by averaging) to form a final prediction. Such a meta-estimator can typically be used as a way to reduce the variance of a black-box estimator (e.g., a decision tree), by introducing randomization into its construction procedure and then making an ensemble out of it.

This algorithm encompasses several works from the literature. When random subsets of the dataset are drawn as random subsets of the samples, then this algorithm is known as Pasting [1]. If samples are drawn with replacement, then the method is known as Bagging [2]. When random subsets of the dataset are drawn as random subsets of the features, then the method is known as Random Subspaces [3]. Finally, when base estimators are built on subsets of both samples and features, then the method is known as Random Patches [4].

Read more in the User Guide.

New in version 0.15.

Parameters
base_estimatorobject, default=None

The base estimator to fit on random subsets of the dataset. If None, then the base estimator is a DecisionTreeClassifier.

n_estimatorsint, default=10

The number of base estimators in the ensemble.

max_samplesint or float, default=1.0

The number of samples to draw from X to train each base estimator (with replacement by default, see bootstrap for more details).

  • If int, then draw max_samples samples.

  • If float, then draw max_samples * X.shape[0] samples.

max_featuresint or float, default=1.0

The number of features to draw from X to train each base estimator ( without replacement by default, see bootstrap_features for more details).

  • If int, then draw max_features features.

  • If float, then draw max_features * X.shape[1] features.

bootstrapbool, default=True

Whether samples are drawn with replacement. If False, sampling without replacement is performed.

bootstrap_featuresbool, default=False

Whether features are drawn with replacement.

oob_scorebool, default=False

Whether to use out-of-bag samples to estimate the generalization error.

warm_startbool, default=False

When set to True, reuse the solution of the previous call to fit and add more estimators to the ensemble, otherwise, just fit a whole new ensemble. See the Glossary.

New in version 0.17: warm_start constructor parameter.

n_jobsint, default=None

The number of jobs to run in parallel for both fit and predict. None means 1 unless in a joblib.parallel_backend context. -1 means using all processors. See Glossary for more details.

random_stateint or RandomState, default=None

Controls the random resampling of the original dataset (sample wise and feature wise). If the base estimator accepts a random_state attribute, a different seed is generated for each instance in the ensemble. Pass an int for reproducible output across multiple function calls. See Glossary.

verboseint, default=0

Controls the verbosity when fitting and predicting.

Attributes
base_estimator_estimator

The base estimator from which the ensemble is grown.

n_features_int

The number of features when fit is performed.

estimators_list of estimators

The collection of fitted base estimators.

estimators_samples_list of arrays

The subset of drawn samples for each base estimator.

estimators_features_list of arrays

The subset of drawn features for each base estimator.

classes_ndarray of shape (n_classes,)

The classes labels.

n_classes_int or list

The number of classes.

oob_score_float

Score of the training dataset obtained using an out-of-bag estimate. This attribute exists only when oob_score is True.

oob_decision_function_ndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes)

Decision function computed with out-of-bag estimate on the training set. If n_estimators is small it might be possible that a data point was never left out during the bootstrap. In this case, oob_decision_function_ might contain NaN. This attribute exists only when oob_score is True.

References

1

L. Breiman, “Pasting small votes for classification in large databases and on-line”, Machine Learning, 36(1), 85-103, 1999.

2

L. Breiman, “Bagging predictors”, Machine Learning, 24(2), 123-140, 1996.

3

T. Ho, “The random subspace method for constructing decision forests”, Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 20(8), 832-844, 1998.

4

G. Louppe and P. Geurts, “Ensembles on Random Patches”, Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases, 346-361, 2012.

Examples

>>> from sklearn.svm import SVC
>>> from sklearn.ensemble import BaggingClassifier
>>> from sklearn.datasets import make_classification
>>> X, y = make_classification(n_samples=100, n_features=4,
...                            n_informative=2, n_redundant=0,
...                            random_state=0, shuffle=False)
>>> clf = BaggingClassifier(base_estimator=SVC(),
...                         n_estimators=10, random_state=0).fit(X, y)
>>> clf.predict([[0, 0, 0, 0]])
array([1])

Methods

decision_function(X)

Average of the decision functions of the base classifiers.

fit(X, y[, sample_weight])

Build a Bagging ensemble of estimators from the training

get_params([deep])

Get parameters for this estimator.

predict(X)

Predict class for X.

predict_log_proba(X)

Predict class log-probabilities for X.

predict_proba(X)

Predict class probabilities for X.

score(X, y[, sample_weight])

Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

set_params(**params)

Set the parameters of this estimator.

decision_function(X)[source]

Average of the decision functions of the base classifiers.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The training input samples. Sparse matrices are accepted only if they are supported by the base estimator.

Returns
scorendarray of shape (n_samples, k)

The decision function of the input samples. The columns correspond to the classes in sorted order, as they appear in the attribute classes_. Regression and binary classification are special cases with k == 1, otherwise k==n_classes.

property estimators_samples_

The subset of drawn samples for each base estimator.

Returns a dynamically generated list of indices identifying the samples used for fitting each member of the ensemble, i.e., the in-bag samples.

Note: the list is re-created at each call to the property in order to reduce the object memory footprint by not storing the sampling data. Thus fetching the property may be slower than expected.

fit(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]
Build a Bagging ensemble of estimators from the training

set (X, y).

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The training input samples. Sparse matrices are accepted only if they are supported by the base estimator.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,)

The target values (class labels in classification, real numbers in regression).

sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None

Sample weights. If None, then samples are equally weighted. Note that this is supported only if the base estimator supports sample weighting.

Returns
selfobject
get_params(deep=True)[source]

Get parameters for this estimator.

Parameters
deepbool, default=True

If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.

Returns
paramsmapping of string to any

Parameter names mapped to their values.

predict(X)[source]

Predict class for X.

The predicted class of an input sample is computed as the class with the highest mean predicted probability. If base estimators do not implement a predict_proba method, then it resorts to voting.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The training input samples. Sparse matrices are accepted only if they are supported by the base estimator.

Returns
yndarray of shape (n_samples,)

The predicted classes.

predict_log_proba(X)[source]

Predict class log-probabilities for X.

The predicted class log-probabilities of an input sample is computed as the log of the mean predicted class probabilities of the base estimators in the ensemble.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The training input samples. Sparse matrices are accepted only if they are supported by the base estimator.

Returns
pndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes)

The class log-probabilities of the input samples. The order of the classes corresponds to that in the attribute classes_.

predict_proba(X)[source]

Predict class probabilities for X.

The predicted class probabilities of an input sample is computed as the mean predicted class probabilities of the base estimators in the ensemble. If base estimators do not implement a predict_proba method, then it resorts to voting and the predicted class probabilities of an input sample represents the proportion of estimators predicting each class.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The training input samples. Sparse matrices are accepted only if they are supported by the base estimator.

Returns
pndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes)

The class probabilities of the input samples. The order of the classes corresponds to that in the attribute classes_.

score(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]

Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

In multi-label classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.

Parameters
Xarray-like of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Test samples.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

True labels for X.

sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None

Sample weights.

Returns
scorefloat

Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.

set_params(**params)[source]

Set the parameters of this estimator.

The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as pipelines). The latter have parameters of the form <component>__<parameter> so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object.

Parameters
**paramsdict

Estimator parameters.

Returns
selfobject

Estimator instance.