# Label Propagation learning a complex structure#

Example of LabelPropagation learning a complex internal structure to demonstrate “manifold learning”. The outer circle should be labeled “red” and the inner circle “blue”. Because both label groups lie inside their own distinct shape, we can see that the labels propagate correctly around the circle.

```# Authors: The scikit-learn developers
```

We generate a dataset with two concentric circles. In addition, a label is associated with each sample of the dataset that is: 0 (belonging to the outer circle), 1 (belonging to the inner circle), and -1 (unknown). Here, all labels but two are tagged as unknown.

```import numpy as np

from sklearn.datasets import make_circles

n_samples = 200
X, y = make_circles(n_samples=n_samples, shuffle=False)
outer, inner = 0, 1
labels = np.full(n_samples, -1.0)
labels[0] = outer
labels[-1] = inner
```

Plot raw data

```import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

plt.figure(figsize=(4, 4))
plt.scatter(
X[labels == outer, 0],
X[labels == outer, 1],
color="navy",
marker="s",
lw=0,
label="outer labeled",
s=10,
)
plt.scatter(
X[labels == inner, 0],
X[labels == inner, 1],
color="c",
marker="s",
lw=0,
label="inner labeled",
s=10,
)
plt.scatter(
X[labels == -1, 0],
X[labels == -1, 1],
color="darkorange",
marker=".",
label="unlabeled",
)
_ = plt.title("Raw data (2 classes=outer and inner)")
```

The aim of `LabelSpreading` is to associate a label to sample where the label is initially unknown.

```from sklearn.semi_supervised import LabelSpreading

```
`LabelSpreading(alpha=0.8, kernel='knn')`
In a Jupyter environment, please rerun this cell to show the HTML representation or trust the notebook.

Now, we can check which labels have been associated with each sample when the label was unknown.

```output_labels = label_spread.transduction_
output_label_array = np.asarray(output_labels)
outer_numbers = np.where(output_label_array == outer)[0]
inner_numbers = np.where(output_label_array == inner)[0]

plt.figure(figsize=(4, 4))
plt.scatter(
X[outer_numbers, 0],
X[outer_numbers, 1],
color="navy",
marker="s",
lw=0,
s=10,
label="outer learned",
)
plt.scatter(
X[inner_numbers, 0],
X[inner_numbers, 1],
color="c",
marker="s",
lw=0,
s=10,
label="inner learned",
)
plt.title("Labels learned with Label Spreading (KNN)")
plt.show()
```

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 0.151 seconds)

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