sklearn.linear_model.PassiveAggressiveClassifier

class sklearn.linear_model.PassiveAggressiveClassifier(C=1.0, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=None, tol=None, shuffle=True, verbose=0, loss=’hinge’, n_jobs=1, random_state=None, warm_start=False, class_weight=None, average=False, n_iter=None)[source]

Passive Aggressive Classifier

Read more in the User Guide.

Parameters:

C : float

Maximum step size (regularization). Defaults to 1.0.

fit_intercept : bool, default=False

Whether the intercept should be estimated or not. If False, the data is assumed to be already centered.

max_iter : int, optional

The maximum number of passes over the training data (aka epochs). It only impacts the behavior in the fit method, and not the partial_fit. Defaults to 5. Defaults to 1000 from 0.21, or if tol is not None.

New in version 0.19.

tol : float or None, optional

The stopping criterion. If it is not None, the iterations will stop when (loss > previous_loss - tol). Defaults to None. Defaults to 1e-3 from 0.21.

New in version 0.19.

shuffle : bool, default=True

Whether or not the training data should be shuffled after each epoch.

verbose : integer, optional

The verbosity level

loss : string, optional

The loss function to be used: hinge: equivalent to PA-I in the reference paper. squared_hinge: equivalent to PA-II in the reference paper.

n_jobs : integer, optional

The number of CPUs to use to do the OVA (One Versus All, for multi-class problems) computation. -1 means ‘all CPUs’. Defaults to 1.

random_state : int, RandomState instance or None, optional, default=None

The seed of the pseudo random number generator to use when shuffling the data. If int, random_state is the seed used by the random number generator; If RandomState instance, random_state is the random number generator; If None, the random number generator is the RandomState instance used by np.random.

warm_start : bool, optional

When set to True, reuse the solution of the previous call to fit as initialization, otherwise, just erase the previous solution.

class_weight : dict, {class_label: weight} or “balanced” or None, optional

Preset for the class_weight fit parameter.

Weights associated with classes. If not given, all classes are supposed to have weight one.

The “balanced” mode uses the values of y to automatically adjust weights inversely proportional to class frequencies in the input data as n_samples / (n_classes * np.bincount(y))

New in version 0.17: parameter class_weight to automatically weight samples.

average : bool or int, optional

When set to True, computes the averaged SGD weights and stores the result in the coef_ attribute. If set to an int greater than 1, averaging will begin once the total number of samples seen reaches average. So average=10 will begin averaging after seeing 10 samples.

New in version 0.19: parameter average to use weights averaging in SGD

n_iter : int, optional

The number of passes over the training data (aka epochs). Defaults to None. Deprecated, will be removed in 0.21.

Changed in version 0.19: Deprecated

Attributes

coef_ (array, shape = [1, n_features] if n_classes == 2 else [n_classes, n_features]) Weights assigned to the features.
intercept_ (array, shape = [1] if n_classes == 2 else [n_classes]) Constants in decision function.
n_iter_ (int) The actual number of iterations to reach the stopping criterion. For multiclass fits, it is the maximum over every binary fit.

References

Online Passive-Aggressive Algorithms <http://jmlr.csail.mit.edu/papers/volume7/crammer06a/crammer06a.pdf> K. Crammer, O. Dekel, J. Keshat, S. Shalev-Shwartz, Y. Singer - JMLR (2006)

Examples

>>> from sklearn.linear_model import PassiveAggressiveClassifier
>>> from sklearn.datasets import make_classification
>>>
>>> X, y = make_classification(n_features=4, random_state=0)
>>> clf = PassiveAggressiveClassifier(random_state=0)
>>> clf.fit(X, y)
PassiveAggressiveClassifier(C=1.0, average=False, class_weight=None,
              fit_intercept=True, loss='hinge', max_iter=None, n_iter=None,
              n_jobs=1, random_state=0, shuffle=True, tol=None, verbose=0,
              warm_start=False)
>>> print(clf.coef_)
[[ 0.49324685  1.0552176   1.49519589  1.33798314]]
>>> print(clf.intercept_)
[ 2.18438388]
>>> print(clf.predict([[0, 0, 0, 0]]))
[1]

Methods

decision_function(X) Predict confidence scores for samples.
densify() Convert coefficient matrix to dense array format.
fit(X, y[, coef_init, intercept_init]) Fit linear model with Passive Aggressive algorithm.
get_params([deep]) Get parameters for this estimator.
partial_fit(X, y[, classes]) Fit linear model with Passive Aggressive algorithm.
predict(X) Predict class labels for samples in X.
score(X, y[, sample_weight]) Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
set_params(*args, **kwargs)
sparsify() Convert coefficient matrix to sparse format.
__init__(C=1.0, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=None, tol=None, shuffle=True, verbose=0, loss=’hinge’, n_jobs=1, random_state=None, warm_start=False, class_weight=None, average=False, n_iter=None)[source]
decision_function(X)[source]

Predict confidence scores for samples.

The confidence score for a sample is the signed distance of that sample to the hyperplane.

Parameters:

X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape = (n_samples, n_features)

Samples.

Returns:

array, shape=(n_samples,) if n_classes == 2 else (n_samples, n_classes)

Confidence scores per (sample, class) combination. In the binary case, confidence score for self.classes_[1] where >0 means this class would be predicted.

densify()[source]

Convert coefficient matrix to dense array format.

Converts the coef_ member (back) to a numpy.ndarray. This is the default format of coef_ and is required for fitting, so calling this method is only required on models that have previously been sparsified; otherwise, it is a no-op.

Returns:self : estimator
fit(X, y, coef_init=None, intercept_init=None)[source]

Fit linear model with Passive Aggressive algorithm.

Parameters:

X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape = [n_samples, n_features]

Training data

y : numpy array of shape [n_samples]

Target values

coef_init : array, shape = [n_classes,n_features]

The initial coefficients to warm-start the optimization.

intercept_init : array, shape = [n_classes]

The initial intercept to warm-start the optimization.

Returns:

self : returns an instance of self.

get_params(deep=True)[source]

Get parameters for this estimator.

Parameters:

deep : boolean, optional

If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.

Returns:

params : mapping of string to any

Parameter names mapped to their values.

loss_function

DEPRECATED: Attribute loss_function was deprecated in version 0.19 and will be removed in 0.21. Use loss_function_ instead

partial_fit(X, y, classes=None)[source]

Fit linear model with Passive Aggressive algorithm.

Parameters:

X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape = [n_samples, n_features]

Subset of the training data

y : numpy array of shape [n_samples]

Subset of the target values

classes : array, shape = [n_classes]

Classes across all calls to partial_fit. Can be obtained by via np.unique(y_all), where y_all is the target vector of the entire dataset. This argument is required for the first call to partial_fit and can be omitted in the subsequent calls. Note that y doesn’t need to contain all labels in classes.

Returns:

self : returns an instance of self.

predict(X)[source]

Predict class labels for samples in X.

Parameters:

X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape = [n_samples, n_features]

Samples.

Returns:

C : array, shape = [n_samples]

Predicted class label per sample.

score(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]

Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

In multi-label classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.

Parameters:

X : array-like, shape = (n_samples, n_features)

Test samples.

y : array-like, shape = (n_samples) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

True labels for X.

sample_weight : array-like, shape = [n_samples], optional

Sample weights.

Returns:

score : float

Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.

sparsify()[source]

Convert coefficient matrix to sparse format.

Converts the coef_ member to a scipy.sparse matrix, which for L1-regularized models can be much more memory- and storage-efficient than the usual numpy.ndarray representation.

The intercept_ member is not converted.

Returns:self : estimator

Notes

For non-sparse models, i.e. when there are not many zeros in coef_, this may actually increase memory usage, so use this method with care. A rule of thumb is that the number of zero elements, which can be computed with (coef_ == 0).sum(), must be more than 50% for this to provide significant benefits.

After calling this method, further fitting with the partial_fit method (if any) will not work until you call densify.