sklearn.linear_model.Perceptron

class sklearn.linear_model.Perceptron(penalty=None, alpha=0.0001, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=None, tol=None, shuffle=True, verbose=0, eta0=1.0, n_jobs=1, random_state=0, class_weight=None, warm_start=False, n_iter=None)[source]

Read more in the User Guide.

Parameters:
penalty : None, ‘l2’ or ‘l1’ or ‘elasticnet’

The penalty (aka regularization term) to be used. Defaults to None.

alpha : float

Constant that multiplies the regularization term if regularization is used. Defaults to 0.0001

fit_intercept : bool

Whether the intercept should be estimated or not. If False, the data is assumed to be already centered. Defaults to True.

max_iter : int, optional

The maximum number of passes over the training data (aka epochs). It only impacts the behavior in the fit method, and not the partial_fit. Defaults to 5. Defaults to 1000 from 0.21, or if tol is not None.

New in version 0.19.

tol : float or None, optional

The stopping criterion. If it is not None, the iterations will stop when (loss > previous_loss - tol). Defaults to None. Defaults to 1e-3 from 0.21.

New in version 0.19.

shuffle : bool, optional, default True

Whether or not the training data should be shuffled after each epoch.

verbose : integer, optional

The verbosity level

eta0 : double

Constant by which the updates are multiplied. Defaults to 1.

n_jobs : integer, optional

The number of CPUs to use to do the OVA (One Versus All, for multi-class problems) computation. -1 means ‘all CPUs’. Defaults to 1.

random_state : int, RandomState instance or None, optional, default None

The seed of the pseudo random number generator to use when shuffling the data. If int, random_state is the seed used by the random number generator; If RandomState instance, random_state is the random number generator; If None, the random number generator is the RandomState instance used by np.random.

class_weight : dict, {class_label: weight} or “balanced” or None, optional

Preset for the class_weight fit parameter.

Weights associated with classes. If not given, all classes are supposed to have weight one.

The “balanced” mode uses the values of y to automatically adjust weights inversely proportional to class frequencies in the input data as n_samples / (n_classes * np.bincount(y))

warm_start : bool, optional

When set to True, reuse the solution of the previous call to fit as initialization, otherwise, just erase the previous solution.

n_iter : int, optional

The number of passes over the training data (aka epochs). Defaults to None. Deprecated, will be removed in 0.21.

Changed in version 0.19: Deprecated

Attributes:
coef_ : array, shape = [1, n_features] if n_classes == 2 else [n_classes, n_features]

Weights assigned to the features.

intercept_ : array, shape = [1] if n_classes == 2 else [n_classes]

Constants in decision function.

n_iter_ : int

The actual number of iterations to reach the stopping criterion. For multiclass fits, it is the maximum over every binary fit.

See also

SGDClassifier

Notes

Perceptron and SGDClassifier share the same underlying implementation. In fact, Perceptron() is equivalent to SGDClassifier(loss=”perceptron”, eta0=1, learning_rate=”constant”, penalty=None).

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perceptron and references therein.

Methods

decision_function(X) Predict confidence scores for samples.
densify() Convert coefficient matrix to dense array format.
fit(X, y[, coef_init, intercept_init, …]) Fit linear model with Stochastic Gradient Descent.
get_params([deep]) Get parameters for this estimator.
partial_fit(X, y[, classes, sample_weight]) Fit linear model with Stochastic Gradient Descent.
predict(X) Predict class labels for samples in X.
score(X, y[, sample_weight]) Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
set_params(*args, **kwargs)
sparsify() Convert coefficient matrix to sparse format.
__init__(penalty=None, alpha=0.0001, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=None, tol=None, shuffle=True, verbose=0, eta0=1.0, n_jobs=1, random_state=0, class_weight=None, warm_start=False, n_iter=None)[source]
decision_function(X)[source]

Predict confidence scores for samples.

The confidence score for a sample is the signed distance of that sample to the hyperplane.

Parameters:
X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape = (n_samples, n_features)

Samples.

Returns:
array, shape=(n_samples,) if n_classes == 2 else (n_samples, n_classes)

Confidence scores per (sample, class) combination. In the binary case, confidence score for self.classes_[1] where >0 means this class would be predicted.

densify()[source]

Convert coefficient matrix to dense array format.

Converts the coef_ member (back) to a numpy.ndarray. This is the default format of coef_ and is required for fitting, so calling this method is only required on models that have previously been sparsified; otherwise, it is a no-op.

Returns:
self : estimator
fit(X, y, coef_init=None, intercept_init=None, sample_weight=None)[source]

Fit linear model with Stochastic Gradient Descent.

Parameters:
X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape (n_samples, n_features)

Training data

y : numpy array, shape (n_samples,)

Target values

coef_init : array, shape (n_classes, n_features)

The initial coefficients to warm-start the optimization.

intercept_init : array, shape (n_classes,)

The initial intercept to warm-start the optimization.

sample_weight : array-like, shape (n_samples,), optional

Weights applied to individual samples. If not provided, uniform weights are assumed. These weights will be multiplied with class_weight (passed through the constructor) if class_weight is specified

Returns:
self : returns an instance of self.
get_params(deep=True)[source]

Get parameters for this estimator.

Parameters:
deep : boolean, optional

If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.

Returns:
params : mapping of string to any

Parameter names mapped to their values.

loss_function

DEPRECATED: Attribute loss_function was deprecated in version 0.19 and will be removed in 0.21. Use loss_function_ instead

partial_fit(X, y, classes=None, sample_weight=None)[source]

Fit linear model with Stochastic Gradient Descent.

Parameters:
X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape (n_samples, n_features)

Subset of the training data

y : numpy array, shape (n_samples,)

Subset of the target values

classes : array, shape (n_classes,)

Classes across all calls to partial_fit. Can be obtained by via np.unique(y_all), where y_all is the target vector of the entire dataset. This argument is required for the first call to partial_fit and can be omitted in the subsequent calls. Note that y doesn’t need to contain all labels in classes.

sample_weight : array-like, shape (n_samples,), optional

Weights applied to individual samples. If not provided, uniform weights are assumed.

Returns:
self : returns an instance of self.
predict(X)[source]

Predict class labels for samples in X.

Parameters:
X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape = [n_samples, n_features]

Samples.

Returns:
C : array, shape = [n_samples]

Predicted class label per sample.

score(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]

Returns the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

In multi-label classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.

Parameters:
X : array-like, shape = (n_samples, n_features)

Test samples.

y : array-like, shape = (n_samples) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

True labels for X.

sample_weight : array-like, shape = [n_samples], optional

Sample weights.

Returns:
score : float

Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.

sparsify()[source]

Convert coefficient matrix to sparse format.

Converts the coef_ member to a scipy.sparse matrix, which for L1-regularized models can be much more memory- and storage-efficient than the usual numpy.ndarray representation.

The intercept_ member is not converted.

Returns:
self : estimator

Notes

For non-sparse models, i.e. when there are not many zeros in coef_, this may actually increase memory usage, so use this method with care. A rule of thumb is that the number of zero elements, which can be computed with (coef_ == 0).sum(), must be more than 50% for this to provide significant benefits.

After calling this method, further fitting with the partial_fit method (if any) will not work until you call densify.