class sklearn.feature_extraction.text.TfidfTransformer(*, norm='l2', use_idf=True, smooth_idf=True, sublinear_tf=False)[source]#

Transform a count matrix to a normalized tf or tf-idf representation.

Tf means term-frequency while tf-idf means term-frequency times inverse document-frequency. This is a common term weighting scheme in information retrieval, that has also found good use in document classification.

The goal of using tf-idf instead of the raw frequencies of occurrence of a token in a given document is to scale down the impact of tokens that occur very frequently in a given corpus and that are hence empirically less informative than features that occur in a small fraction of the training corpus.

The formula that is used to compute the tf-idf for a term t of a document d in a document set is tf-idf(t, d) = tf(t, d) * idf(t), and the idf is computed as idf(t) = log [ n / df(t) ] + 1 (if smooth_idf=False), where n is the total number of documents in the document set and df(t) is the document frequency of t; the document frequency is the number of documents in the document set that contain the term t. The effect of adding “1” to the idf in the equation above is that terms with zero idf, i.e., terms that occur in all documents in a training set, will not be entirely ignored. (Note that the idf formula above differs from the standard textbook notation that defines the idf as idf(t) = log [ n / (df(t) + 1) ]).

If smooth_idf=True (the default), the constant “1” is added to the numerator and denominator of the idf as if an extra document was seen containing every term in the collection exactly once, which prevents zero divisions: idf(t) = log [ (1 + n) / (1 + df(t)) ] + 1.

Furthermore, the formulas used to compute tf and idf depend on parameter settings that correspond to the SMART notation used in IR as follows:

Tf is “n” (natural) by default, “l” (logarithmic) when sublinear_tf=True. Idf is “t” when use_idf is given, “n” (none) otherwise. Normalization is “c” (cosine) when norm='l2', “n” (none) when norm=None.

Read more in the User Guide.

norm{‘l1’, ‘l2’} or None, default=’l2’

Each output row will have unit norm, either:

  • ‘l2’: Sum of squares of vector elements is 1. The cosine similarity between two vectors is their dot product when l2 norm has been applied.

  • ‘l1’: Sum of absolute values of vector elements is 1. See normalize.

  • None: No normalization.

use_idfbool, default=True

Enable inverse-document-frequency reweighting. If False, idf(t) = 1.

smooth_idfbool, default=True

Smooth idf weights by adding one to document frequencies, as if an extra document was seen containing every term in the collection exactly once. Prevents zero divisions.

sublinear_tfbool, default=False

Apply sublinear tf scaling, i.e. replace tf with 1 + log(tf).

idf_array of shape (n_features)

The inverse document frequency (IDF) vector; only defined if use_idf is True.

Added in version 0.20.


Number of features seen during fit.

Added in version 1.0.

feature_names_in_ndarray of shape (n_features_in_,)

Names of features seen during fit. Defined only when X has feature names that are all strings.

Added in version 1.0.

See also


Transforms text into a sparse matrix of n-gram counts.


Convert a collection of raw documents to a matrix of TF-IDF features.


Convert a collection of text documents to a matrix of token occurrences.



R. Baeza-Yates and B. Ribeiro-Neto (2011). Modern Information Retrieval. Addison Wesley, pp. 68-74.


C.D. Manning, P. Raghavan and H. Schütze (2008). Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press, pp. 118-120.


>>> from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfTransformer
>>> from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import CountVectorizer
>>> from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline
>>> corpus = ['this is the first document',
...           'this document is the second document',
...           'and this is the third one',
...           'is this the first document']
>>> vocabulary = ['this', 'document', 'first', 'is', 'second', 'the',
...               'and', 'one']
>>> pipe = Pipeline([('count', CountVectorizer(vocabulary=vocabulary)),
...                  ('tfid', TfidfTransformer())]).fit(corpus)
>>> pipe['count'].transform(corpus).toarray()
array([[1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0],
       [1, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1],
       [1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0]])
>>> pipe['tfid'].idf_
array([1.        , 1.22314355, 1.51082562, 1.        , 1.91629073,
       1.        , 1.91629073, 1.91629073])
>>> pipe.transform(corpus).shape
(4, 8)
fit(X, y=None)[source]#

Learn the idf vector (global term weights).

Xsparse matrix of shape (n_samples, n_features)

A matrix of term/token counts.


This parameter is not needed to compute tf-idf.


Fitted transformer.

fit_transform(X, y=None, **fit_params)[source]#

Fit to data, then transform it.

Fits transformer to X and y with optional parameters fit_params and returns a transformed version of X.

Xarray-like of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Input samples.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs), default=None

Target values (None for unsupervised transformations).


Additional fit parameters.

X_newndarray array of shape (n_samples, n_features_new)

Transformed array.


Get output feature names for transformation.

input_featuresarray-like of str or None, default=None

Input features.

  • If input_features is None, then feature_names_in_ is used as feature names in. If feature_names_in_ is not defined, then the following input feature names are generated: ["x0", "x1", ..., "x(n_features_in_ - 1)"].

  • If input_features is an array-like, then input_features must match feature_names_in_ if feature_names_in_ is defined.

feature_names_outndarray of str objects

Same as input features.


Get metadata routing of this object.

Please check User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.


A MetadataRequest encapsulating routing information.


Get parameters for this estimator.

deepbool, default=True

If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.


Parameter names mapped to their values.

set_output(*, transform=None)[source]#

Set output container.

See Introducing the set_output API for an example on how to use the API.

transform{“default”, “pandas”, “polars”}, default=None

Configure output of transform and fit_transform.

  • "default": Default output format of a transformer

  • "pandas": DataFrame output

  • "polars": Polars output

  • None: Transform configuration is unchanged

Added in version 1.4: "polars" option was added.

selfestimator instance

Estimator instance.


Set the parameters of this estimator.

The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as Pipeline). The latter have parameters of the form <component>__<parameter> so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object.


Estimator parameters.

selfestimator instance

Estimator instance.

set_transform_request(*, copy: bool | None | str = '$UNCHANGED$') TfidfTransformer[source]#

Request metadata passed to the transform method.

Note that this method is only relevant if enable_metadata_routing=True (see sklearn.set_config). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.

The options for each parameter are:

  • True: metadata is requested, and passed to transform if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.

  • False: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it to transform.

  • None: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.

  • str: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.

The default (sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.

Added in version 1.3.


This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a Pipeline. Otherwise it has no effect.

copystr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for copy parameter in transform.


The updated object.

transform(X, copy=True)[source]#

Transform a count matrix to a tf or tf-idf representation.

Xsparse matrix of (n_samples, n_features)

A matrix of term/token counts.

copybool, default=True

Whether to copy X and operate on the copy or perform in-place operations. copy=False will only be effective with CSR sparse matrix.

vectorssparse matrix of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Tf-idf-weighted document-term matrix.