# KNeighborsRegressor#

class sklearn.neighbors.KNeighborsRegressor(n_neighbors=5, *, weights='uniform', algorithm='auto', leaf_size=30, p=2, metric='minkowski', metric_params=None, n_jobs=None)[source]#

Regression based on k-nearest neighbors.

The target is predicted by local interpolation of the targets associated of the nearest neighbors in the training set.

Read more in the User Guide.

Added in version 0.9.

Parameters:
n_neighborsint, default=5

Number of neighbors to use by default for kneighbors queries.

weights{‘uniform’, ‘distance’}, callable or None, default=’uniform’

Weight function used in prediction. Possible values:

• ‘uniform’ : uniform weights. All points in each neighborhood are weighted equally.

• ‘distance’ : weight points by the inverse of their distance. in this case, closer neighbors of a query point will have a greater influence than neighbors which are further away.

• [callable] : a user-defined function which accepts an array of distances, and returns an array of the same shape containing the weights.

Uniform weights are used by default.

algorithm{‘auto’, ‘ball_tree’, ‘kd_tree’, ‘brute’}, default=’auto’

Algorithm used to compute the nearest neighbors:

Note: fitting on sparse input will override the setting of this parameter, using brute force.

leaf_sizeint, default=30

Leaf size passed to BallTree or KDTree. This can affect the speed of the construction and query, as well as the memory required to store the tree. The optimal value depends on the nature of the problem.

pfloat, default=2

Power parameter for the Minkowski metric. When p = 1, this is equivalent to using manhattan_distance (l1), and euclidean_distance (l2) for p = 2. For arbitrary p, minkowski_distance (l_p) is used.

metricstr, DistanceMetric object or callable, default=’minkowski’

Metric to use for distance computation. Default is “minkowski”, which results in the standard Euclidean distance when p = 2. See the documentation of scipy.spatial.distance and the metrics listed in distance_metrics for valid metric values.

If metric is “precomputed”, X is assumed to be a distance matrix and must be square during fit. X may be a sparse graph, in which case only “nonzero” elements may be considered neighbors.

If metric is a callable function, it takes two arrays representing 1D vectors as inputs and must return one value indicating the distance between those vectors. This works for Scipy’s metrics, but is less efficient than passing the metric name as a string.

If metric is a DistanceMetric object, it will be passed directly to the underlying computation routines.

metric_paramsdict, default=None

Additional keyword arguments for the metric function.

n_jobsint, default=None

The number of parallel jobs to run for neighbors search. None means 1 unless in a joblib.parallel_backend context. -1 means using all processors. See Glossary for more details. Doesn’t affect fit method.

Attributes:
effective_metric_str or callable

The distance metric to use. It will be same as the metric parameter or a synonym of it, e.g. ‘euclidean’ if the metric parameter set to ‘minkowski’ and p parameter set to 2.

effective_metric_params_dict

Additional keyword arguments for the metric function. For most metrics will be same with metric_params parameter, but may also contain the p parameter value if the effective_metric_ attribute is set to ‘minkowski’.

n_features_in_int

Number of features seen during fit.

Added in version 0.24.

feature_names_in_ndarray of shape (n_features_in_,)

Names of features seen during fit. Defined only when X has feature names that are all strings.

Added in version 1.0.

n_samples_fit_int

Number of samples in the fitted data.

NearestNeighbors

Unsupervised learner for implementing neighbor searches.

RadiusNeighborsRegressor

Regression based on neighbors within a fixed radius.

KNeighborsClassifier

Classifier implementing the k-nearest neighbors vote.

RadiusNeighborsClassifier

Classifier implementing a vote among neighbors within a given radius.

Notes

See Nearest Neighbors in the online documentation for a discussion of the choice of algorithm and leaf_size.

Warning

Regarding the Nearest Neighbors algorithms, if it is found that two neighbors, neighbor k+1 and k, have identical distances but different labels, the results will depend on the ordering of the training data.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-nearest_neighbors_algorithm

Examples

>>> X = [[0], [1], [2], [3]]
>>> y = [0, 0, 1, 1]
>>> from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsRegressor
>>> neigh = KNeighborsRegressor(n_neighbors=2)
>>> neigh.fit(X, y)
KNeighborsRegressor(...)
>>> print(neigh.predict([[1.5]]))
[0.5]

fit(X, y)[source]#

Fit the k-nearest neighbors regressor from the training dataset.

Parameters:
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features) or (n_samples, n_samples) if metric=’precomputed’

Training data.

y{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

Target values.

Returns:
selfKNeighborsRegressor

The fitted k-nearest neighbors regressor.

Get metadata routing of this object.

Please check User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.

Returns:

A MetadataRequest encapsulating routing information.

get_params(deep=True)[source]#

Get parameters for this estimator.

Parameters:
deepbool, default=True

If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.

Returns:
paramsdict

Parameter names mapped to their values.

kneighbors(X=None, n_neighbors=None, return_distance=True)[source]#

Find the K-neighbors of a point.

Returns indices of and distances to the neighbors of each point.

Parameters:
X{array-like, sparse matrix}, shape (n_queries, n_features), or (n_queries, n_indexed) if metric == ‘precomputed’, default=None

The query point or points. If not provided, neighbors of each indexed point are returned. In this case, the query point is not considered its own neighbor.

n_neighborsint, default=None

Number of neighbors required for each sample. The default is the value passed to the constructor.

return_distancebool, default=True

Whether or not to return the distances.

Returns:
neigh_distndarray of shape (n_queries, n_neighbors)

Array representing the lengths to points, only present if return_distance=True.

neigh_indndarray of shape (n_queries, n_neighbors)

Indices of the nearest points in the population matrix.

Examples

In the following example, we construct a NearestNeighbors class from an array representing our data set and ask who’s the closest point to [1,1,1]

>>> samples = [[0., 0., 0.], [0., .5, 0.], [1., 1., .5]]
>>> from sklearn.neighbors import NearestNeighbors
>>> neigh = NearestNeighbors(n_neighbors=1)
>>> neigh.fit(samples)
NearestNeighbors(n_neighbors=1)
>>> print(neigh.kneighbors([[1., 1., 1.]]))
(array([[0.5]]), array([[2]]))


As you can see, it returns [[0.5]], and [[2]], which means that the element is at distance 0.5 and is the third element of samples (indexes start at 0). You can also query for multiple points:

>>> X = [[0., 1., 0.], [1., 0., 1.]]
>>> neigh.kneighbors(X, return_distance=False)
array([[1],
[2]]...)

kneighbors_graph(X=None, n_neighbors=None, mode='connectivity')[source]#

Compute the (weighted) graph of k-Neighbors for points in X.

Parameters:
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_queries, n_features), or (n_queries, n_indexed) if metric == ‘precomputed’, default=None

The query point or points. If not provided, neighbors of each indexed point are returned. In this case, the query point is not considered its own neighbor. For metric='precomputed' the shape should be (n_queries, n_indexed). Otherwise the shape should be (n_queries, n_features).

n_neighborsint, default=None

Number of neighbors for each sample. The default is the value passed to the constructor.

mode{‘connectivity’, ‘distance’}, default=’connectivity’

Type of returned matrix: ‘connectivity’ will return the connectivity matrix with ones and zeros, in ‘distance’ the edges are distances between points, type of distance depends on the selected metric parameter in NearestNeighbors class.

Returns:
Asparse-matrix of shape (n_queries, n_samples_fit)

n_samples_fit is the number of samples in the fitted data. A[i, j] gives the weight of the edge connecting i to j. The matrix is of CSR format.

NearestNeighbors.radius_neighbors_graph

Compute the (weighted) graph of Neighbors for points in X.

Examples

>>> X = [[0], [3], [1]]
>>> from sklearn.neighbors import NearestNeighbors
>>> neigh = NearestNeighbors(n_neighbors=2)
>>> neigh.fit(X)
NearestNeighbors(n_neighbors=2)
>>> A = neigh.kneighbors_graph(X)
>>> A.toarray()
array([[1., 0., 1.],
[0., 1., 1.],
[1., 0., 1.]])

predict(X)[source]#

Predict the target for the provided data.

Parameters:
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_queries, n_features), or (n_queries, n_indexed) if metric == ‘precomputed’

Test samples.

Returns:
yndarray of shape (n_queries,) or (n_queries, n_outputs), dtype=int

Target values.

score(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]#

Return the coefficient of determination of the prediction.

The coefficient of determination $$R^2$$ is defined as $$(1 - \frac{u}{v})$$, where $$u$$ is the residual sum of squares ((y_true - y_pred)** 2).sum() and $$v$$ is the total sum of squares ((y_true - y_true.mean()) ** 2).sum(). The best possible score is 1.0 and it can be negative (because the model can be arbitrarily worse). A constant model that always predicts the expected value of y, disregarding the input features, would get a $$R^2$$ score of 0.0.

Parameters:
Xarray-like of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Test samples. For some estimators this may be a precomputed kernel matrix or a list of generic objects instead with shape (n_samples, n_samples_fitted), where n_samples_fitted is the number of samples used in the fitting for the estimator.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

True values for X.

sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None

Sample weights.

Returns:
scorefloat

$$R^2$$ of self.predict(X) w.r.t. y.

Notes

The $$R^2$$ score used when calling score on a regressor uses multioutput='uniform_average' from version 0.23 to keep consistent with default value of r2_score. This influences the score method of all the multioutput regressors (except for MultiOutputRegressor).

set_params(**params)[source]#

Set the parameters of this estimator.

The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as Pipeline). The latter have parameters of the form <component>__<parameter> so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object.

Parameters:
**paramsdict

Estimator parameters.

Returns:
selfestimator instance

Estimator instance.

set_score_request(*, sample_weight: = '$UNCHANGED$') [source]#

Request metadata passed to the score method.

Note that this method is only relevant if enable_metadata_routing=True (see sklearn.set_config). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.

The options for each parameter are:

• True: metadata is requested, and passed to score if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.

• False: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it to score.

• None: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.

• str: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.

The default (sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.

Added in version 1.3.

Note

This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a Pipeline. Otherwise it has no effect.

Parameters:
sample_weightstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for sample_weight parameter in score.

Returns:
selfobject

The updated object.