IsolationForest exampleΒΆ

An example using IsolationForest for anomaly detection.

The IsolationForest ‘isolates’ observations by randomly selecting a feature and then randomly selecting a split value between the maximum and minimum values of the selected feature.

Since recursive partitioning can be represented by a tree structure, the number of splittings required to isolate a sample is equivalent to the path length from the root node to the terminating node.

This path length, averaged over a forest of such random trees, is a measure of normality and our decision function.

Random partitioning produces noticeable shorter paths for anomalies. Hence, when a forest of random trees collectively produce shorter path lengths for particular samples, they are highly likely to be anomalies.

[1]Liu, Fei Tony, Ting, Kai Ming and Zhou, Zhi-Hua. “Isolation forest.” Data Mining, 2008. ICDM‘08. Eighth IEEE International Conference on.

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn.ensemble import IsolationForest

rng = np.random.RandomState(42)

# Generate train data
X = 0.3 * rng.randn(100, 2)
X_train = np.r_[X + 2, X - 2]
# Generate some regular novel observations
X = 0.3 * rng.randn(20, 2)
X_test = np.r_[X + 2, X - 2]
# Generate some abnormal novel observations
X_outliers = rng.uniform(low=-4, high=4, size=(20, 2))

# fit the model
clf = IsolationForest(max_samples=100, random_state=rng)
y_pred_train = clf.predict(X_train)
y_pred_test = clf.predict(X_test)
y_pred_outliers = clf.predict(X_outliers)

# plot the line, the samples, and the nearest vectors to the plane
xx, yy = np.meshgrid(np.linspace(-5, 5, 50), np.linspace(-5, 5, 50))
Z = clf.decision_function(np.c_[xx.ravel(), yy.ravel()])
Z = Z.reshape(xx.shape)

plt.contourf(xx, yy, Z,

b1 = plt.scatter(X_train[:, 0], X_train[:, 1], c='white')
b2 = plt.scatter(X_test[:, 0], X_test[:, 1], c='green')
c = plt.scatter(X_outliers[:, 0], X_outliers[:, 1], c='red')
plt.xlim((-5, 5))
plt.ylim((-5, 5))
plt.legend([b1, b2, c],
           ["training observations",
            "new regular observations", "new abnormal observations"],
           loc="upper left")

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 0.539 seconds)

Download Python source code:
Download IPython notebook: plot_isolation_forest.ipynb