sklearn.linear_model
.Ridge¶
- class sklearn.linear_model.Ridge(alpha=1.0, *, fit_intercept=True, copy_X=True, max_iter=None, tol=0.0001, solver='auto', positive=False, random_state=None)[source]¶
Linear least squares with l2 regularization.
Minimizes the objective function:
||y - Xw||^2_2 + alpha * ||w||^2_2
This model solves a regression model where the loss function is the linear least squares function and regularization is given by the l2-norm. Also known as Ridge Regression or Tikhonov regularization. This estimator has built-in support for multi-variate regression (i.e., when y is a 2d-array of shape (n_samples, n_targets)).
Read more in the User Guide.
- Parameters:
- alpha{float, ndarray of shape (n_targets,)}, default=1.0
Constant that multiplies the L2 term, controlling regularization strength.
alpha
must be a non-negative float i.e. in[0, inf)
.When
alpha = 0
, the objective is equivalent to ordinary least squares, solved by theLinearRegression
object. For numerical reasons, usingalpha = 0
with theRidge
object is not advised. Instead, you should use theLinearRegression
object.If an array is passed, penalties are assumed to be specific to the targets. Hence they must correspond in number.
- fit_interceptbool, default=True
Whether to fit the intercept for this model. If set to false, no intercept will be used in calculations (i.e.
X
andy
are expected to be centered).- copy_Xbool, default=True
If True, X will be copied; else, it may be overwritten.
- max_iterint, default=None
Maximum number of iterations for conjugate gradient solver. For ‘sparse_cg’ and ‘lsqr’ solvers, the default value is determined by scipy.sparse.linalg. For ‘sag’ solver, the default value is 1000. For ‘lbfgs’ solver, the default value is 15000.
- tolfloat, default=1e-4
The precision of the solution (
coef_
) is determined bytol
which specifies a different convergence criterion for each solver:‘svd’:
tol
has no impact.‘cholesky’:
tol
has no impact.‘sparse_cg’: norm of residuals smaller than
tol
.‘lsqr’:
tol
is set as atol and btol of scipy.sparse.linalg.lsqr, which control the norm of the residual vector in terms of the norms of matrix and coefficients.‘sag’ and ‘saga’: relative change of coef smaller than
tol
.‘lbfgs’: maximum of the absolute (projected) gradient=max|residuals| smaller than
tol
.
Changed in version 1.2: Default value changed from 1e-3 to 1e-4 for consistency with other linear models.
- solver{‘auto’, ‘svd’, ‘cholesky’, ‘lsqr’, ‘sparse_cg’, ‘sag’, ‘saga’, ‘lbfgs’}, default=’auto’
Solver to use in the computational routines:
‘auto’ chooses the solver automatically based on the type of data.
‘svd’ uses a Singular Value Decomposition of X to compute the Ridge coefficients. It is the most stable solver, in particular more stable for singular matrices than ‘cholesky’ at the cost of being slower.
‘cholesky’ uses the standard scipy.linalg.solve function to obtain a closed-form solution.
‘sparse_cg’ uses the conjugate gradient solver as found in scipy.sparse.linalg.cg. As an iterative algorithm, this solver is more appropriate than ‘cholesky’ for large-scale data (possibility to set
tol
andmax_iter
).‘lsqr’ uses the dedicated regularized least-squares routine scipy.sparse.linalg.lsqr. It is the fastest and uses an iterative procedure.
‘sag’ uses a Stochastic Average Gradient descent, and ‘saga’ uses its improved, unbiased version named SAGA. Both methods also use an iterative procedure, and are often faster than other solvers when both n_samples and n_features are large. Note that ‘sag’ and ‘saga’ fast convergence is only guaranteed on features with approximately the same scale. You can preprocess the data with a scaler from sklearn.preprocessing.
‘lbfgs’ uses L-BFGS-B algorithm implemented in
scipy.optimize.minimize
. It can be used only whenpositive
is True.
All solvers except ‘svd’ support both dense and sparse data. However, only ‘lsqr’, ‘sag’, ‘sparse_cg’, and ‘lbfgs’ support sparse input when
fit_intercept
is True.New in version 0.17: Stochastic Average Gradient descent solver.
New in version 0.19: SAGA solver.
- positivebool, default=False
When set to
True
, forces the coefficients to be positive. Only ‘lbfgs’ solver is supported in this case.- random_stateint, RandomState instance, default=None
Used when
solver
== ‘sag’ or ‘saga’ to shuffle the data. See Glossary for details.New in version 0.17:
random_state
to support Stochastic Average Gradient.
- Attributes:
- coef_ndarray of shape (n_features,) or (n_targets, n_features)
Weight vector(s).
- intercept_float or ndarray of shape (n_targets,)
Independent term in decision function. Set to 0.0 if
fit_intercept = False
.- n_iter_None or ndarray of shape (n_targets,)
Actual number of iterations for each target. Available only for sag and lsqr solvers. Other solvers will return None.
New in version 0.17.
- n_features_in_int
Number of features seen during fit.
New in version 0.24.
- feature_names_in_ndarray of shape (
n_features_in_
,) Names of features seen during fit. Defined only when
X
has feature names that are all strings.New in version 1.0.
See also
RidgeClassifier
Ridge classifier.
RidgeCV
Ridge regression with built-in cross validation.
KernelRidge
Kernel ridge regression combines ridge regression with the kernel trick.
Notes
Regularization improves the conditioning of the problem and reduces the variance of the estimates. Larger values specify stronger regularization. Alpha corresponds to
1 / (2C)
in other linear models such asLogisticRegression
orLinearSVC
.Examples
>>> from sklearn.linear_model import Ridge >>> import numpy as np >>> n_samples, n_features = 10, 5 >>> rng = np.random.RandomState(0) >>> y = rng.randn(n_samples) >>> X = rng.randn(n_samples, n_features) >>> clf = Ridge(alpha=1.0) >>> clf.fit(X, y) Ridge()
Methods
fit
(X, y[, sample_weight])Fit Ridge regression model.
Get metadata routing of this object.
get_params
([deep])Get parameters for this estimator.
predict
(X)Predict using the linear model.
score
(X, y[, sample_weight])Return the coefficient of determination of the prediction.
set_fit_request
(*[, sample_weight])Request metadata passed to the
fit
method.set_params
(**params)Set the parameters of this estimator.
set_score_request
(*[, sample_weight])Request metadata passed to the
score
method.- fit(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]¶
Fit Ridge regression model.
- Parameters:
- X{ndarray, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)
Training data.
- yndarray of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_targets)
Target values.
- sample_weightfloat or ndarray of shape (n_samples,), default=None
Individual weights for each sample. If given a float, every sample will have the same weight.
- Returns:
- selfobject
Fitted estimator.
- get_metadata_routing()[source]¶
Get metadata routing of this object.
Please check User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.
- Returns:
- routingMetadataRequest
A
MetadataRequest
encapsulating routing information.
- get_params(deep=True)[source]¶
Get parameters for this estimator.
- Parameters:
- deepbool, default=True
If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.
- Returns:
- paramsdict
Parameter names mapped to their values.
- predict(X)[source]¶
Predict using the linear model.
- Parameters:
- Xarray-like or sparse matrix, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Samples.
- Returns:
- Carray, shape (n_samples,)
Returns predicted values.
- score(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]¶
Return the coefficient of determination of the prediction.
The coefficient of determination \(R^2\) is defined as \((1 - \frac{u}{v})\), where \(u\) is the residual sum of squares
((y_true - y_pred)** 2).sum()
and \(v\) is the total sum of squares((y_true - y_true.mean()) ** 2).sum()
. The best possible score is 1.0 and it can be negative (because the model can be arbitrarily worse). A constant model that always predicts the expected value ofy
, disregarding the input features, would get a \(R^2\) score of 0.0.- Parameters:
- Xarray-like of shape (n_samples, n_features)
Test samples. For some estimators this may be a precomputed kernel matrix or a list of generic objects instead with shape
(n_samples, n_samples_fitted)
, wheren_samples_fitted
is the number of samples used in the fitting for the estimator.- yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)
True values for
X
.- sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None
Sample weights.
- Returns:
- scorefloat
\(R^2\) of
self.predict(X)
w.r.t.y
.
Notes
The \(R^2\) score used when calling
score
on a regressor usesmultioutput='uniform_average'
from version 0.23 to keep consistent with default value ofr2_score
. This influences thescore
method of all the multioutput regressors (except forMultiOutputRegressor
).
- set_fit_request(*, sample_weight: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$') Ridge [source]¶
Request metadata passed to the
fit
method.Note that this method is only relevant if
enable_metadata_routing=True
(seesklearn.set_config
). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.The options for each parameter are:
True
: metadata is requested, and passed tofit
if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.False
: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it tofit
.None
: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.str
: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.
The default (
sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED
) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.New in version 1.3.
Note
This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a
Pipeline
. Otherwise it has no effect.- Parameters:
- sample_weightstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED
Metadata routing for
sample_weight
parameter infit
.
- Returns:
- selfobject
The updated object.
- set_params(**params)[source]¶
Set the parameters of this estimator.
The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as
Pipeline
). The latter have parameters of the form<component>__<parameter>
so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object.- Parameters:
- **paramsdict
Estimator parameters.
- Returns:
- selfestimator instance
Estimator instance.
- set_score_request(*, sample_weight: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$') Ridge [source]¶
Request metadata passed to the
score
method.Note that this method is only relevant if
enable_metadata_routing=True
(seesklearn.set_config
). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.The options for each parameter are:
True
: metadata is requested, and passed toscore
if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.False
: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it toscore
.None
: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.str
: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.
The default (
sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED
) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.New in version 1.3.
Note
This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a
Pipeline
. Otherwise it has no effect.- Parameters:
- sample_weightstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED
Metadata routing for
sample_weight
parameter inscore
.
- Returns:
- selfobject
The updated object.
Examples using sklearn.linear_model.Ridge
¶
Compressive sensing: tomography reconstruction with L1 prior (Lasso)
Comparison of kernel ridge and Gaussian process regression
HuberRegressor vs Ridge on dataset with strong outliers
L1-based models for Sparse Signals
Ordinary Least Squares and Ridge Regression Variance
Plot Ridge coefficients as a function of the regularization
Poisson regression and non-normal loss
Polynomial and Spline interpolation
Ridge coefficients as a function of the L2 Regularization
Common pitfalls in the interpretation of coefficients of linear models
Imputing missing values with variants of IterativeImputer
Target Encoder’s Internal Cross fitting