class sklearn.svm.LinearSVR(*, epsilon=0.0, tol=0.0001, C=1.0, loss='epsilon_insensitive', fit_intercept=True, intercept_scaling=1.0, dual=True, verbose=0, random_state=None, max_iter=1000)[source]

Linear Support Vector Regression.

Similar to SVR with parameter kernel=’linear’, but implemented in terms of liblinear rather than libsvm, so it has more flexibility in the choice of penalties and loss functions and should scale better to large numbers of samples.

This class supports both dense and sparse input.

Read more in the User Guide.

New in version 0.16.

epsilonfloat, default=0.0

Epsilon parameter in the epsilon-insensitive loss function. Note that the value of this parameter depends on the scale of the target variable y. If unsure, set epsilon=0.

tolfloat, default=1e-4

Tolerance for stopping criteria.

Cfloat, default=1.0

Regularization parameter. The strength of the regularization is inversely proportional to C. Must be strictly positive.

loss{‘epsilon_insensitive’, ‘squared_epsilon_insensitive’}, default=’epsilon_insensitive’

Specifies the loss function. The epsilon-insensitive loss (standard SVR) is the L1 loss, while the squared epsilon-insensitive loss (‘squared_epsilon_insensitive’) is the L2 loss.

fit_interceptbool, default=True

Whether to calculate the intercept for this model. If set to false, no intercept will be used in calculations (i.e. data is expected to be already centered).

intercept_scalingfloat, default=1.0

When self.fit_intercept is True, instance vector x becomes [x, self.intercept_scaling], i.e. a “synthetic” feature with constant value equals to intercept_scaling is appended to the instance vector. The intercept becomes intercept_scaling * synthetic feature weight Note! the synthetic feature weight is subject to l1/l2 regularization as all other features. To lessen the effect of regularization on synthetic feature weight (and therefore on the intercept) intercept_scaling has to be increased.

dualbool, default=True

Select the algorithm to either solve the dual or primal optimization problem. Prefer dual=False when n_samples > n_features.

verboseint, default=0

Enable verbose output. Note that this setting takes advantage of a per-process runtime setting in liblinear that, if enabled, may not work properly in a multithreaded context.

random_stateint, RandomState instance or None, default=None

Controls the pseudo random number generation for shuffling the data. Pass an int for reproducible output across multiple function calls. See Glossary.

max_iterint, default=1000

The maximum number of iterations to be run.

coef_ndarray of shape (n_features) if n_classes == 2 else (n_classes, n_features)

Weights assigned to the features (coefficients in the primal problem).

coef_ is a readonly property derived from raw_coef_ that follows the internal memory layout of liblinear.

intercept_ndarray of shape (1) if n_classes == 2 else (n_classes)

Constants in decision function.


Number of features seen during fit.

New in version 0.24.

feature_names_in_ndarray of shape (n_features_in_,)

Names of features seen during fit. Defined only when X has feature names that are all strings.

New in version 1.0.


Maximum number of iterations run across all classes.

See also


Implementation of Support Vector Machine classifier using the same library as this class (liblinear).


Implementation of Support Vector Machine regression using libsvm: the kernel can be non-linear but its SMO algorithm does not scale to large number of samples as LinearSVC does.


SGDRegressor can optimize the same cost function as LinearSVR by adjusting the penalty and loss parameters. In addition it requires less memory, allows incremental (online) learning, and implements various loss functions and regularization regimes.


>>> from sklearn.svm import LinearSVR
>>> from sklearn.pipeline import make_pipeline
>>> from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
>>> from sklearn.datasets import make_regression
>>> X, y = make_regression(n_features=4, random_state=0)
>>> regr = make_pipeline(StandardScaler(),
...                      LinearSVR(random_state=0, tol=1e-5))
>>>, y)
Pipeline(steps=[('standardscaler', StandardScaler()),
                ('linearsvr', LinearSVR(random_state=0, tol=1e-05))])
>>> print(regr.named_steps['linearsvr'].coef_)
[18.582... 27.023... 44.357... 64.522...]
>>> print(regr.named_steps['linearsvr'].intercept_)
>>> print(regr.predict([[0, 0, 0, 0]]))


fit(X, y[, sample_weight])

Fit the model according to the given training data.


Get parameters for this estimator.


Predict using the linear model.

score(X, y[, sample_weight])

Return the coefficient of determination of the prediction.


Set the parameters of this estimator.

fit(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]

Fit the model according to the given training data.

X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Training vector, where n_samples is the number of samples and n_features is the number of features.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,)

Target vector relative to X.

sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None

Array of weights that are assigned to individual samples. If not provided, then each sample is given unit weight.

New in version 0.18.


An instance of the estimator.


Get parameters for this estimator.

deepbool, default=True

If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.


Parameter names mapped to their values.


Predict using the linear model.

Xarray-like or sparse matrix, shape (n_samples, n_features)


Carray, shape (n_samples,)

Returns predicted values.

score(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]

Return the coefficient of determination of the prediction.

The coefficient of determination \(R^2\) is defined as \((1 - \frac{u}{v})\), where \(u\) is the residual sum of squares ((y_true - y_pred)** 2).sum() and \(v\) is the total sum of squares ((y_true - y_true.mean()) ** 2).sum(). The best possible score is 1.0 and it can be negative (because the model can be arbitrarily worse). A constant model that always predicts the expected value of y, disregarding the input features, would get a \(R^2\) score of 0.0.

Xarray-like of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Test samples. For some estimators this may be a precomputed kernel matrix or a list of generic objects instead with shape (n_samples, n_samples_fitted), where n_samples_fitted is the number of samples used in the fitting for the estimator.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

True values for X.

sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None

Sample weights.


\(R^2\) of self.predict(X) w.r.t. y.


The \(R^2\) score used when calling score on a regressor uses multioutput='uniform_average' from version 0.23 to keep consistent with default value of r2_score. This influences the score method of all the multioutput regressors (except for MultiOutputRegressor).


Set the parameters of this estimator.

The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as Pipeline). The latter have parameters of the form <component>__<parameter> so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object.


Estimator parameters.

selfestimator instance

Estimator instance.