Classifier comparison

A comparison of a several classifiers in scikit-learn on synthetic datasets. The point of this example is to illustrate the nature of decision boundaries of different classifiers. This should be taken with a grain of salt, as the intuition conveyed by these examples does not necessarily carry over to real datasets.

Particularly in high-dimensional spaces, data can more easily be separated linearly and the simplicity of classifiers such as naive Bayes and linear SVMs might lead to better generalization than is achieved by other classifiers.

The plots show training points in solid colors and testing points semi-transparent. The lower right shows the classification accuracy on the test set.


# Code source: Gaël Varoquaux
#              Andreas Müller
# Modified for documentation by Jaques Grobler
# License: BSD 3 clause

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib.colors import ListedColormap
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.datasets import make_moons, make_circles, make_classification
from sklearn.neural_network import MLPClassifier
from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier
from sklearn.svm import SVC
from sklearn.gaussian_process import GaussianProcessClassifier
from sklearn.gaussian_process.kernels import RBF
from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier, AdaBoostClassifier
from sklearn.naive_bayes import GaussianNB
from sklearn.discriminant_analysis import QuadraticDiscriminantAnalysis

h = .02  # step size in the mesh

names = ["Nearest Neighbors", "Linear SVM", "RBF SVM", "Gaussian Process",
         "Decision Tree", "Random Forest", "Neural Net", "AdaBoost",
         "Naive Bayes", "QDA"]

classifiers = [
    SVC(kernel="linear", C=0.025),
    SVC(gamma=2, C=1),
    GaussianProcessClassifier(1.0 * RBF(1.0), warm_start=True),
    RandomForestClassifier(max_depth=5, n_estimators=10, max_features=1),

X, y = make_classification(n_features=2, n_redundant=0, n_informative=2,
                           random_state=1, n_clusters_per_class=1)
rng = np.random.RandomState(2)
X += 2 * rng.uniform(size=X.shape)
linearly_separable = (X, y)

datasets = [make_moons(noise=0.3, random_state=0),
            make_circles(noise=0.2, factor=0.5, random_state=1),

figure = plt.figure(figsize=(27, 9))
i = 1
# iterate over datasets
for ds_cnt, ds in enumerate(datasets):
    # preprocess dataset, split into training and test part
    X, y = ds
    X = StandardScaler().fit_transform(X)
    X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = \
        train_test_split(X, y, test_size=.4, random_state=42)

    x_min, x_max = X[:, 0].min() - .5, X[:, 0].max() + .5
    y_min, y_max = X[:, 1].min() - .5, X[:, 1].max() + .5
    xx, yy = np.meshgrid(np.arange(x_min, x_max, h),
                         np.arange(y_min, y_max, h))

    # just plot the dataset first
    cm =
    cm_bright = ListedColormap(['#FF0000', '#0000FF'])
    ax = plt.subplot(len(datasets), len(classifiers) + 1, i)
    if ds_cnt == 0:
        ax.set_title("Input data")
    # Plot the training points
    ax.scatter(X_train[:, 0], X_train[:, 1], c=y_train, cmap=cm_bright,
    # and testing points
    ax.scatter(X_test[:, 0], X_test[:, 1], c=y_test, cmap=cm_bright, alpha=0.6,
    ax.set_xlim(xx.min(), xx.max())
    ax.set_ylim(yy.min(), yy.max())
    i += 1

    # iterate over classifiers
    for name, clf in zip(names, classifiers):
        ax = plt.subplot(len(datasets), len(classifiers) + 1, i), y_train)
        score = clf.score(X_test, y_test)

        # Plot the decision boundary. For that, we will assign a color to each
        # point in the mesh [x_min, x_max]x[y_min, y_max].
        if hasattr(clf, "decision_function"):
            Z = clf.decision_function(np.c_[xx.ravel(), yy.ravel()])
            Z = clf.predict_proba(np.c_[xx.ravel(), yy.ravel()])[:, 1]

        # Put the result into a color plot
        Z = Z.reshape(xx.shape)
        ax.contourf(xx, yy, Z, cmap=cm, alpha=.8)

        # Plot also the training points
        ax.scatter(X_train[:, 0], X_train[:, 1], c=y_train, cmap=cm_bright,
        # and testing points
        ax.scatter(X_test[:, 0], X_test[:, 1], c=y_test, cmap=cm_bright,
                   edgecolors='k', alpha=0.6)

        ax.set_xlim(xx.min(), xx.max())
        ax.set_ylim(yy.min(), yy.max())
        if ds_cnt == 0:
        ax.text(xx.max() - .3, yy.min() + .3, ('%.2f' % score).lstrip('0'),
                size=15, horizontalalignment='right')
        i += 1


Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 12.434 seconds)

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