sklearn.ensemble
.RandomForestClassifier¶
- class sklearn.ensemble.RandomForestClassifier(n_estimators=100, *, criterion='gini', max_depth=None, min_samples_split=2, min_samples_leaf=1, min_weight_fraction_leaf=0.0, max_features='sqrt', max_leaf_nodes=None, min_impurity_decrease=0.0, bootstrap=True, oob_score=False, n_jobs=None, random_state=None, verbose=0, warm_start=False, class_weight=None, ccp_alpha=0.0, max_samples=None, monotonic_cst=None)[source]¶
A random forest classifier.
A random forest is a meta estimator that fits a number of decision tree classifiers on various sub-samples of the dataset and uses averaging to improve the predictive accuracy and control over-fitting. Trees in the forest use the best split strategy, i.e. equivalent to passing
splitter="best"
to the underlyingDecisionTreeRegressor
. The sub-sample size is controlled with themax_samples
parameter ifbootstrap=True
(default), otherwise the whole dataset is used to build each tree.For a comparison between tree-based ensemble models see the example Comparing Random Forests and Histogram Gradient Boosting models.
Read more in the User Guide.
- Parameters:
- n_estimatorsint, default=100
The number of trees in the forest.
Changed in version 0.22: The default value of
n_estimators
changed from 10 to 100 in 0.22.- criterion{“gini”, “entropy”, “log_loss”}, default=”gini”
The function to measure the quality of a split. Supported criteria are “gini” for the Gini impurity and “log_loss” and “entropy” both for the Shannon information gain, see Mathematical formulation. Note: This parameter is tree-specific.
- max_depthint, default=None
The maximum depth of the tree. If None, then nodes are expanded until all leaves are pure or until all leaves contain less than min_samples_split samples.
- min_samples_splitint or float, default=2
The minimum number of samples required to split an internal node:
If int, then consider
min_samples_split
as the minimum number.If float, then
min_samples_split
is a fraction andceil(min_samples_split * n_samples)
are the minimum number of samples for each split.
Changed in version 0.18: Added float values for fractions.
- min_samples_leafint or float, default=1
The minimum number of samples required to be at a leaf node. A split point at any depth will only be considered if it leaves at least
min_samples_leaf
training samples in each of the left and right branches. This may have the effect of smoothing the model, especially in regression.If int, then consider
min_samples_leaf
as the minimum number.If float, then
min_samples_leaf
is a fraction andceil(min_samples_leaf * n_samples)
are the minimum number of samples for each node.
Changed in version 0.18: Added float values for fractions.
- min_weight_fraction_leaffloat, default=0.0
The minimum weighted fraction of the sum total of weights (of all the input samples) required to be at a leaf node. Samples have equal weight when sample_weight is not provided.
- max_features{“sqrt”, “log2”, None}, int or float, default=”sqrt”
The number of features to consider when looking for the best split:
If int, then consider
max_features
features at each split.If float, then
max_features
is a fraction andmax(1, int(max_features * n_features_in_))
features are considered at each split.If “sqrt”, then
max_features=sqrt(n_features)
.If “log2”, then
max_features=log2(n_features)
.If None, then
max_features=n_features
.
Changed in version 1.1: The default of
max_features
changed from"auto"
to"sqrt"
.Note: the search for a split does not stop until at least one valid partition of the node samples is found, even if it requires to effectively inspect more than
max_features
features.- max_leaf_nodesint, default=None
Grow trees with
max_leaf_nodes
in best-first fashion. Best nodes are defined as relative reduction in impurity. If None then unlimited number of leaf nodes.- min_impurity_decreasefloat, default=0.0
A node will be split if this split induces a decrease of the impurity greater than or equal to this value.
The weighted impurity decrease equation is the following:
N_t / N * (impurity - N_t_R / N_t * right_impurity - N_t_L / N_t * left_impurity)
where
N
is the total number of samples,N_t
is the number of samples at the current node,N_t_L
is the number of samples in the left child, andN_t_R
is the number of samples in the right child.N
,N_t
,N_t_R
andN_t_L
all refer to the weighted sum, ifsample_weight
is passed.New in version 0.19.
- bootstrapbool, default=True
Whether bootstrap samples are used when building trees. If False, the whole dataset is used to build each tree.
- oob_scorebool or callable, default=False
Whether to use out-of-bag samples to estimate the generalization score. By default,
accuracy_score
is used. Provide a callable with signaturemetric(y_true, y_pred)
to use a custom metric. Only available ifbootstrap=True
.- n_jobsint, default=None
The number of jobs to run in parallel.
fit
,predict
,decision_path
andapply
are all parallelized over the trees.None
means 1 unless in ajoblib.parallel_backend
context.-1
means using all processors. See Glossary for more details.- random_stateint, RandomState instance or None, default=None
Controls both the randomness of the bootstrapping of the samples used when building trees (if
bootstrap=True
) and the sampling of the features to consider when looking for the best split at each node (ifmax_features < n_features
). See Glossary for details.- verboseint, default=0
Controls the verbosity when fitting and predicting.
- warm_startbool, default=False
When set to
True
, reuse the solution of the previous call to fit and add more estimators to the ensemble, otherwise, just fit a whole new forest. See Glossary and Fitting additional weak-learners for details.- class_weight{“balanced”, “balanced_subsample”}, dict or list of dicts, default=None
Weights associated with classes in the form
{class_label: weight}
. If not given, all classes are supposed to have weight one. For multi-output problems, a list of dicts can be provided in the same order as the columns of y.Note that for multioutput (including multilabel) weights should be defined for each class of every column in its own dict. For example, for four-class multilabel classification weights should be [{0: 1, 1: 1}, {0: 1, 1: 5}, {0: 1, 1: 1}, {0: 1, 1: 1}] instead of [{1:1}, {2:5}, {3:1}, {4:1}].
The “balanced” mode uses the values of y to automatically adjust weights inversely proportional to class frequencies in the input data as
n_samples / (n_classes * np.bincount(y))
The “balanced_subsample” mode is the same as “balanced” except that weights are computed based on the bootstrap sample for every tree grown.
For multi-output, the weights of each column of y will be multiplied.
Note that these weights will be multiplied with sample_weight (passed through the fit method) if sample_weight is specified.
- ccp_alphanon-negative float, default=0.0
Complexity parameter used for Minimal Cost-Complexity Pruning. The subtree with the largest cost complexity that is smaller than
ccp_alpha
will be chosen. By default, no pruning is performed. See Minimal Cost-Complexity Pruning for details.New in version 0.22.
- max_samplesint or float, default=None
If bootstrap is True, the number of samples to draw from X to train each base estimator.
If None (default), then draw
X.shape[0]
samples.If int, then draw
max_samples
samples.If float, then draw
max(round(n_samples * max_samples), 1)
samples. Thus,max_samples
should be in the interval(0.0, 1.0]
.
New in version 0.22.
- monotonic_cstarray-like of int of shape (n_features), default=None
- Indicates the monotonicity constraint to enforce on each feature.
1: monotonic increase
0: no constraint
-1: monotonic decrease
If monotonic_cst is None, no constraints are applied.
- Monotonicity constraints are not supported for:
multiclass classifications (i.e. when
n_classes > 2
),multioutput classifications (i.e. when
n_outputs_ > 1
),classifications trained on data with missing values.
The constraints hold over the probability of the positive class.
Read more in the User Guide.
New in version 1.4.
- Attributes:
- estimator_
DecisionTreeClassifier
The child estimator template used to create the collection of fitted sub-estimators.
New in version 1.2:
base_estimator_
was renamed toestimator_
.- estimators_list of DecisionTreeClassifier
The collection of fitted sub-estimators.
- classes_ndarray of shape (n_classes,) or a list of such arrays
The classes labels (single output problem), or a list of arrays of class labels (multi-output problem).
- n_classes_int or list
The number of classes (single output problem), or a list containing the number of classes for each output (multi-output problem).
- n_features_in_int
Number of features seen during fit.
New in version 0.24.
- feature_names_in_ndarray of shape (
n_features_in_
,) Names of features seen during fit. Defined only when
X
has feature names that are all strings.New in version 1.0.
- n_outputs_int
The number of outputs when
fit
is performed.feature_importances_
ndarray of shape (n_features,)The impurity-based feature importances.
- oob_score_float
Score of the training dataset obtained using an out-of-bag estimate. This attribute exists only when
oob_score
is True.- oob_decision_function_ndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes) or (n_samples, n_classes, n_outputs)
Decision function computed with out-of-bag estimate on the training set. If n_estimators is small it might be possible that a data point was never left out during the bootstrap. In this case,
oob_decision_function_
might contain NaN. This attribute exists only whenoob_score
is True.estimators_samples_
list of arraysThe subset of drawn samples for each base estimator.
- estimator_
See also
sklearn.tree.DecisionTreeClassifier
A decision tree classifier.
sklearn.ensemble.ExtraTreesClassifier
Ensemble of extremely randomized tree classifiers.
sklearn.ensemble.HistGradientBoostingClassifier
A Histogram-based Gradient Boosting Classification Tree, very fast for big datasets (n_samples >= 10_000).
Notes
The default values for the parameters controlling the size of the trees (e.g.
max_depth
,min_samples_leaf
, etc.) lead to fully grown and unpruned trees which can potentially be very large on some data sets. To reduce memory consumption, the complexity and size of the trees should be controlled by setting those parameter values.The features are always randomly permuted at each split. Therefore, the best found split may vary, even with the same training data,
max_features=n_features
andbootstrap=False
, if the improvement of the criterion is identical for several splits enumerated during the search of the best split. To obtain a deterministic behaviour during fitting,random_state
has to be fixed.References
[1]Breiman, “Random Forests”, Machine Learning, 45(1), 5-32, 2001.
Examples
>>> from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier >>> from sklearn.datasets import make_classification >>> X, y = make_classification(n_samples=1000, n_features=4, ... n_informative=2, n_redundant=0, ... random_state=0, shuffle=False) >>> clf = RandomForestClassifier(max_depth=2, random_state=0) >>> clf.fit(X, y) RandomForestClassifier(...) >>> print(clf.predict([[0, 0, 0, 0]])) [1]
Methods
apply
(X)Apply trees in the forest to X, return leaf indices.
Return the decision path in the forest.
fit
(X, y[, sample_weight])Build a forest of trees from the training set (X, y).
Get metadata routing of this object.
get_params
([deep])Get parameters for this estimator.
predict
(X)Predict class for X.
Predict class log-probabilities for X.
Predict class probabilities for X.
score
(X, y[, sample_weight])Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
set_fit_request
(*[, sample_weight])Request metadata passed to the
fit
method.set_params
(**params)Set the parameters of this estimator.
set_score_request
(*[, sample_weight])Request metadata passed to the
score
method.- apply(X)[source]¶
Apply trees in the forest to X, return leaf indices.
- Parameters:
- X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)
The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to
dtype=np.float32
. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparsecsr_matrix
.
- Returns:
- X_leavesndarray of shape (n_samples, n_estimators)
For each datapoint x in X and for each tree in the forest, return the index of the leaf x ends up in.
- decision_path(X)[source]¶
Return the decision path in the forest.
New in version 0.18.
- Parameters:
- X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)
The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to
dtype=np.float32
. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparsecsr_matrix
.
- Returns:
- indicatorsparse matrix of shape (n_samples, n_nodes)
Return a node indicator matrix where non zero elements indicates that the samples goes through the nodes. The matrix is of CSR format.
- n_nodes_ptrndarray of shape (n_estimators + 1,)
The columns from indicator[n_nodes_ptr[i]:n_nodes_ptr[i+1]] gives the indicator value for the i-th estimator.
- property estimators_samples_¶
The subset of drawn samples for each base estimator.
Returns a dynamically generated list of indices identifying the samples used for fitting each member of the ensemble, i.e., the in-bag samples.
Note: the list is re-created at each call to the property in order to reduce the object memory footprint by not storing the sampling data. Thus fetching the property may be slower than expected.
- property feature_importances_¶
The impurity-based feature importances.
The higher, the more important the feature. The importance of a feature is computed as the (normalized) total reduction of the criterion brought by that feature. It is also known as the Gini importance.
Warning: impurity-based feature importances can be misleading for high cardinality features (many unique values). See
sklearn.inspection.permutation_importance
as an alternative.- Returns:
- feature_importances_ndarray of shape (n_features,)
The values of this array sum to 1, unless all trees are single node trees consisting of only the root node, in which case it will be an array of zeros.
- fit(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]¶
Build a forest of trees from the training set (X, y).
- Parameters:
- X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)
The training input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to
dtype=np.float32
. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparsecsc_matrix
.- yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)
The target values (class labels in classification, real numbers in regression).
- sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None
Sample weights. If None, then samples are equally weighted. Splits that would create child nodes with net zero or negative weight are ignored while searching for a split in each node. In the case of classification, splits are also ignored if they would result in any single class carrying a negative weight in either child node.
- Returns:
- selfobject
Fitted estimator.
- get_metadata_routing()[source]¶
Get metadata routing of this object.
Please check User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.
- Returns:
- routingMetadataRequest
A
MetadataRequest
encapsulating routing information.
- get_params(deep=True)[source]¶
Get parameters for this estimator.
- Parameters:
- deepbool, default=True
If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.
- Returns:
- paramsdict
Parameter names mapped to their values.
- predict(X)[source]¶
Predict class for X.
The predicted class of an input sample is a vote by the trees in the forest, weighted by their probability estimates. That is, the predicted class is the one with highest mean probability estimate across the trees.
- Parameters:
- X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)
The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to
dtype=np.float32
. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparsecsr_matrix
.
- Returns:
- yndarray of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)
The predicted classes.
- predict_log_proba(X)[source]¶
Predict class log-probabilities for X.
The predicted class log-probabilities of an input sample is computed as the log of the mean predicted class probabilities of the trees in the forest.
- Parameters:
- X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)
The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to
dtype=np.float32
. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparsecsr_matrix
.
- Returns:
- pndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes), or a list of such arrays
The class probabilities of the input samples. The order of the classes corresponds to that in the attribute classes_.
- predict_proba(X)[source]¶
Predict class probabilities for X.
The predicted class probabilities of an input sample are computed as the mean predicted class probabilities of the trees in the forest. The class probability of a single tree is the fraction of samples of the same class in a leaf.
- Parameters:
- X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)
The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to
dtype=np.float32
. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparsecsr_matrix
.
- Returns:
- pndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes), or a list of such arrays
The class probabilities of the input samples. The order of the classes corresponds to that in the attribute classes_.
- score(X, y, sample_weight=None)[source]¶
Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.
In multi-label classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.
- Parameters:
- Xarray-like of shape (n_samples, n_features)
Test samples.
- yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)
True labels for
X
.- sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None
Sample weights.
- Returns:
- scorefloat
Mean accuracy of
self.predict(X)
w.r.t.y
.
- set_fit_request(*, sample_weight: bool | None | str = '$UNCHANGED$') RandomForestClassifier [source]¶
Request metadata passed to the
fit
method.Note that this method is only relevant if
enable_metadata_routing=True
(seesklearn.set_config
). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.The options for each parameter are:
True
: metadata is requested, and passed tofit
if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.False
: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it tofit
.None
: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.str
: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.
The default (
sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED
) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.New in version 1.3.
Note
This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a
Pipeline
. Otherwise it has no effect.- Parameters:
- sample_weightstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED
Metadata routing for
sample_weight
parameter infit
.
- Returns:
- selfobject
The updated object.
- set_params(**params)[source]¶
Set the parameters of this estimator.
The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as
Pipeline
). The latter have parameters of the form<component>__<parameter>
so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object.- Parameters:
- **paramsdict
Estimator parameters.
- Returns:
- selfestimator instance
Estimator instance.
- set_score_request(*, sample_weight: bool | None | str = '$UNCHANGED$') RandomForestClassifier [source]¶
Request metadata passed to the
score
method.Note that this method is only relevant if
enable_metadata_routing=True
(seesklearn.set_config
). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.The options for each parameter are:
True
: metadata is requested, and passed toscore
if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.False
: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it toscore
.None
: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.str
: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.
The default (
sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED
) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.New in version 1.3.
Note
This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a
Pipeline
. Otherwise it has no effect.- Parameters:
- sample_weightstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED
Metadata routing for
sample_weight
parameter inscore
.
- Returns:
- selfobject
The updated object.
Examples using sklearn.ensemble.RandomForestClassifier
¶
Release Highlights for scikit-learn 1.4
Release Highlights for scikit-learn 0.24
Release Highlights for scikit-learn 0.22
Comparison of Calibration of Classifiers
Probability Calibration for 3-class classification
Comparing Random Forests and Histogram Gradient Boosting models
Feature importances with a forest of trees
Feature transformations with ensembles of trees
Pixel importances with a parallel forest of trees
Plot class probabilities calculated by the VotingClassifier
Plot the decision surfaces of ensembles of trees on the iris dataset
Permutation Importance vs Random Forest Feature Importance (MDI)
Permutation Importance with Multicollinear or Correlated Features
ROC Curve with Visualization API
Detection error tradeoff (DET) curve
Classification of text documents using sparse features