3.2. Tuning the hyper-parameters of an estimator

Hyper-parameters are parameters that are not directly learnt within estimators. In scikit-learn they are passed as arguments to the constructor of the estimator classes. Typical examples include C, kernel and gamma for Support Vector Classifier, alpha for Lasso, etc.

It is possible and recommended to search the hyper-parameter space for the best cross validation score.

Any parameter provided when constructing an estimator may be optimized in this manner. Specifically, to find the names and current values for all parameters for a given estimator, use:


A search consists of:

  • an estimator (regressor or classifier such as sklearn.svm.SVC());

  • a parameter space;

  • a method for searching or sampling candidates;

  • a cross-validation scheme; and

  • a score function.

Some models allow for specialized, efficient parameter search strategies, outlined below. Two generic approaches to sampling search candidates are provided in scikit-learn: for given values, GridSearchCV exhaustively considers all parameter combinations, while RandomizedSearchCV can sample a given number of candidates from a parameter space with a specified distribution. After describing these tools we detail best practice applicable to both approaches.

Note that it is common that a small subset of those parameters can have a large impact on the predictive or computation performance of the model while others can be left to their default values. It is recommended to read the docstring of the estimator class to get a finer understanding of their expected behavior, possibly by reading the enclosed reference to the literature.

3.2.2. Randomized Parameter Optimization

While using a grid of parameter settings is currently the most widely used method for parameter optimization, other search methods have more favourable properties. RandomizedSearchCV implements a randomized search over parameters, where each setting is sampled from a distribution over possible parameter values. This has two main benefits over an exhaustive search:

  • A budget can be chosen independent of the number of parameters and possible values.

  • Adding parameters that do not influence the performance does not decrease efficiency.

Specifying how parameters should be sampled is done using a dictionary, very similar to specifying parameters for GridSearchCV. Additionally, a computation budget, being the number of sampled candidates or sampling iterations, is specified using the n_iter parameter. For each parameter, either a distribution over possible values or a list of discrete choices (which will be sampled uniformly) can be specified:

{'C': scipy.stats.expon(scale=100), 'gamma': scipy.stats.expon(scale=.1),
  'kernel': ['rbf'], 'class_weight':['balanced', None]}

This example uses the scipy.stats module, which contains many useful distributions for sampling parameters, such as expon, gamma, uniform or randint.

In principle, any function can be passed that provides a rvs (random variate sample) method to sample a value. A call to the rvs function should provide independent random samples from possible parameter values on consecutive calls.


The distributions in scipy.stats prior to version scipy 0.16 do not allow specifying a random state. Instead, they use the global numpy random state, that can be seeded via np.random.seed or set using np.random.set_state. However, beginning scikit-learn 0.18, the sklearn.model_selection module sets the random state provided by the user if scipy >= 0.16 is also available.

For continuous parameters, such as C above, it is important to specify a continuous distribution to take full advantage of the randomization. This way, increasing n_iter will always lead to a finer search.

A continuous log-uniform random variable is available through loguniform. This is a continuous version of log-spaced parameters. For example to specify C above, loguniform(1, 100) can be used instead of [1, 10, 100] or np.logspace(0, 2, num=1000). This is an alias to SciPy’s stats.reciprocal.

Mirroring the example above in grid search, we can specify a continuous random variable that is log-uniformly distributed between 1e0 and 1e3:

from sklearn.utils.fixes import loguniform
{'C': loguniform(1e0, 1e3),
 'gamma': loguniform(1e-4, 1e-3),
 'kernel': ['rbf'],
 'class_weight':['balanced', None]}



  • Bergstra, J. and Bengio, Y., Random search for hyper-parameter optimization, The Journal of Machine Learning Research (2012)