# Putting it all together¶

## Pipelining¶

We have seen that some estimators can transform data and that some estimators can predict variables. We can also create combined estimators:

```import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

from sklearn import linear_model, decomposition, datasets
from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline
from sklearn.model_selection import GridSearchCV

logistic = linear_model.LogisticRegression()

pca = decomposition.PCA()
pipe = Pipeline(steps=[('pca', pca), ('logistic', logistic)])

X_digits = digits.data
y_digits = digits.target

# Plot the PCA spectrum
pca.fit(X_digits)

plt.figure(1, figsize=(4, 3))
plt.clf()
plt.axes([.2, .2, .7, .7])
plt.plot(pca.explained_variance_, linewidth=2)
plt.axis('tight')
plt.xlabel('n_components')
plt.ylabel('explained_variance_')

# Prediction
n_components = [20, 40, 64]
Cs = np.logspace(-4, 4, 3)

# Parameters of pipelines can be set using ‘__’ separated parameter names:
estimator = GridSearchCV(pipe,
dict(pca__n_components=n_components,
logistic__C=Cs))
estimator.fit(X_digits, y_digits)

plt.axvline(estimator.best_estimator_.named_steps['pca'].n_components,
linestyle=':', label='n_components chosen')
plt.legend(prop=dict(size=12))
plt.show()
```

## Face recognition with eigenfaces¶

The dataset used in this example is a preprocessed excerpt of the “Labeled Faces in the Wild”, also known as LFW:

```"""
===================================================
Faces recognition example using eigenfaces and SVMs
===================================================

The dataset used in this example is a preprocessed excerpt of the
"Labeled Faces in the Wild", aka LFW_:

http://vis-www.cs.umass.edu/lfw/lfw-funneled.tgz (233MB)

.. _LFW: http://vis-www.cs.umass.edu/lfw/

Expected results for the top 5 most represented people in the dataset:

================== ============ ======= ========== =======
precision    recall  f1-score   support
================== ============ ======= ========== =======
Ariel Sharon       0.67      0.92      0.77        13
Colin Powell       0.75      0.78      0.76        60
Donald Rumsfeld       0.78      0.67      0.72        27
George W Bush       0.86      0.86      0.86       146
Gerhard Schroeder       0.76      0.76      0.76        25
Hugo Chavez       0.67      0.67      0.67        15
Tony Blair       0.81      0.69      0.75        36

avg / total       0.80      0.80      0.80       322
================== ============ ======= ========== =======

"""
from __future__ import print_function

from time import time
import logging
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.model_selection import GridSearchCV
from sklearn.datasets import fetch_lfw_people
from sklearn.metrics import classification_report
from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix
from sklearn.decomposition import PCA
from sklearn.svm import SVC

print(__doc__)

# Display progress logs on stdout
logging.basicConfig(level=logging.INFO, format='%(asctime)s %(message)s')

# #############################################################################

lfw_people = fetch_lfw_people(min_faces_per_person=70, resize=0.4)

# introspect the images arrays to find the shapes (for plotting)
n_samples, h, w = lfw_people.images.shape

# for machine learning we use the 2 data directly (as relative pixel
# positions info is ignored by this model)
X = lfw_people.data
n_features = X.shape[1]

# the label to predict is the id of the person
y = lfw_people.target
target_names = lfw_people.target_names
n_classes = target_names.shape[0]

print("Total dataset size:")
print("n_samples: %d" % n_samples)
print("n_features: %d" % n_features)
print("n_classes: %d" % n_classes)

# #############################################################################
# Split into a training set and a test set using a stratified k fold

# split into a training and testing set
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(
X, y, test_size=0.25, random_state=42)

# #############################################################################
# Compute a PCA (eigenfaces) on the face dataset (treated as unlabeled
# dataset): unsupervised feature extraction / dimensionality reduction
n_components = 150

print("Extracting the top %d eigenfaces from %d faces"
% (n_components, X_train.shape[0]))
t0 = time()
pca = PCA(n_components=n_components, svd_solver='randomized',
whiten=True).fit(X_train)
print("done in %0.3fs" % (time() - t0))

eigenfaces = pca.components_.reshape((n_components, h, w))

print("Projecting the input data on the eigenfaces orthonormal basis")
t0 = time()
X_train_pca = pca.transform(X_train)
X_test_pca = pca.transform(X_test)
print("done in %0.3fs" % (time() - t0))

# #############################################################################
# Train a SVM classification model

print("Fitting the classifier to the training set")
t0 = time()
param_grid = {'C': [1e3, 5e3, 1e4, 5e4, 1e5],
'gamma': [0.0001, 0.0005, 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.1], }
clf = GridSearchCV(SVC(kernel='rbf', class_weight='balanced'), param_grid)
clf = clf.fit(X_train_pca, y_train)
print("done in %0.3fs" % (time() - t0))
print("Best estimator found by grid search:")
print(clf.best_estimator_)

# #############################################################################
# Quantitative evaluation of the model quality on the test set

print("Predicting people's names on the test set")
t0 = time()
y_pred = clf.predict(X_test_pca)
print("done in %0.3fs" % (time() - t0))

print(classification_report(y_test, y_pred, target_names=target_names))
print(confusion_matrix(y_test, y_pred, labels=range(n_classes)))

# #############################################################################
# Qualitative evaluation of the predictions using matplotlib

def plot_gallery(images, titles, h, w, n_row=3, n_col=4):
"""Helper function to plot a gallery of portraits"""
plt.figure(figsize=(1.8 * n_col, 2.4 * n_row))
for i in range(n_row * n_col):
plt.subplot(n_row, n_col, i + 1)
plt.imshow(images[i].reshape((h, w)), cmap=plt.cm.gray)
plt.title(titles[i], size=12)
plt.xticks(())
plt.yticks(())

# plot the result of the prediction on a portion of the test set

def title(y_pred, y_test, target_names, i):
pred_name = target_names[y_pred[i]].rsplit(' ', 1)[-1]
true_name = target_names[y_test[i]].rsplit(' ', 1)[-1]
return 'predicted: %s\ntrue:      %s' % (pred_name, true_name)

prediction_titles = [title(y_pred, y_test, target_names, i)
for i in range(y_pred.shape[0])]

plot_gallery(X_test, prediction_titles, h, w)

# plot the gallery of the most significative eigenfaces

eigenface_titles = ["eigenface %d" % i for i in range(eigenfaces.shape[0])]
plot_gallery(eigenfaces, eigenface_titles, h, w)

plt.show()
```
 Prediction Eigenfaces

Expected results for the top 5 most represented people in the dataset:

```                   precision    recall  f1-score   support

Gerhard_Schroeder       0.91      0.75      0.82        28
Donald_Rumsfeld       0.84      0.82      0.83        33
Tony_Blair       0.65      0.82      0.73        34
Colin_Powell       0.78      0.88      0.83        58
George_W_Bush       0.93      0.86      0.90       129

avg / total       0.86      0.84      0.85       282
```

## Open problem: Stock Market Structure¶

Can we predict the variation in stock prices for Google over a given time frame?

Learning a graph structure