"""
=====================================
Visualization of MLP weights on MNIST
=====================================
Sometimes looking at the learned coefficients of a neural network can provide
insight into the learning behavior. For example if weights look unstructured,
maybe some were not used at all, or if very large coefficients exist, maybe
regularization was too low or the learning rate too high.
This example shows how to plot some of the first layer weights in a
MLPClassifier trained on the MNIST dataset.
The input data consists of 28x28 pixel handwritten digits, leading to 784
features in the dataset. Therefore the first layer weight matrix has the shape
(784, hidden_layer_sizes[0]). We can therefore visualize a single column of
the weight matrix as a 28x28 pixel image.
To make the example run faster, we use very few hidden units, and train only
for a very short time. Training longer would result in weights with a much
smoother spatial appearance. The example will throw a warning because it
doesn't converge, in this case this is what we want because of resource
usage constraints on our Continuous Integration infrastructure that is used
to build this documentation on a regular basis.
"""
import warnings
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn.datasets import fetch_openml
from sklearn.exceptions import ConvergenceWarning
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.neural_network import MLPClassifier
# Load data from https://www.openml.org/d/554
X, y = fetch_openml(
"mnist_784", version=1, return_X_y=True, as_frame=False, parser="pandas"
)
X = X / 255.0
# Split data into train partition and test partition
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, random_state=0, test_size=0.7)
mlp = MLPClassifier(
hidden_layer_sizes=(40,),
max_iter=8,
alpha=1e-4,
solver="sgd",
verbose=10,
random_state=1,
learning_rate_init=0.2,
)
# this example won't converge because of resource usage constraints on
# our Continuous Integration infrastructure, so we catch the warning and
# ignore it here
with warnings.catch_warnings():
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", category=ConvergenceWarning, module="sklearn")
mlp.fit(X_train, y_train)
print("Training set score: %f" % mlp.score(X_train, y_train))
print("Test set score: %f" % mlp.score(X_test, y_test))
fig, axes = plt.subplots(4, 4)
# use global min / max to ensure all weights are shown on the same scale
vmin, vmax = mlp.coefs_[0].min(), mlp.coefs_[0].max()
for coef, ax in zip(mlp.coefs_[0].T, axes.ravel()):
ax.matshow(coef.reshape(28, 28), cmap=plt.cm.gray, vmin=0.5 * vmin, vmax=0.5 * vmax)
ax.set_xticks(())
ax.set_yticks(())
plt.show()