"""
===================================
Polynomial and Spline interpolation
===================================
This example demonstrates how to approximate a function with polynomials up to
degree ``degree`` by using ridge regression. We show two different ways given
``n_samples`` of 1d points ``x_i``:
- :class:`~sklearn.preprocessing.PolynomialFeatures` generates all monomials
up to ``degree``. This gives us the so called Vandermonde matrix with
``n_samples`` rows and ``degree + 1`` columns::
[[1, x_0, x_0 ** 2, x_0 ** 3, ..., x_0 ** degree],
[1, x_1, x_1 ** 2, x_1 ** 3, ..., x_1 ** degree],
...]
Intuitively, this matrix can be interpreted as a matrix of pseudo features
(the points raised to some power). The matrix is akin to (but different from)
the matrix induced by a polynomial kernel.
- :class:`~sklearn.preprocessing.SplineTransformer` generates B-spline basis
functions. A basis function of a B-spline is a piece-wise polynomial function
of degree ``degree`` that is non-zero only between ``degree+1`` consecutive
knots. Given ``n_knots`` number of knots, this results in matrix of
``n_samples`` rows and ``n_knots + degree - 1`` columns::
[[basis_1(x_0), basis_2(x_0), ...],
[basis_1(x_1), basis_2(x_1), ...],
...]
This example shows that these two transformers are well suited to model
non-linear effects with a linear model, using a pipeline to add non-linear
features. Kernel methods extend this idea and can induce very high (even
infinite) dimensional feature spaces.
"""
# Author: Mathieu Blondel
# Jake Vanderplas
# Christian Lorentzen
# Malte Londschien
# License: BSD 3 clause
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn.linear_model import Ridge
from sklearn.preprocessing import PolynomialFeatures, SplineTransformer
from sklearn.pipeline import make_pipeline
# %%
# We start by defining a function that we intend to approximate and prepare
# plotting it.
def f(x):
"""Function to be approximated by polynomial interpolation."""
return x * np.sin(x)
# whole range we want to plot
x_plot = np.linspace(-1, 11, 100)
# %%
# To make it interesting, we only give a small subset of points to train on.
x_train = np.linspace(0, 10, 100)
rng = np.random.RandomState(0)
x_train = np.sort(rng.choice(x_train, size=20, replace=False))
y_train = f(x_train)
# create 2D-array versions of these arrays to feed to transformers
X_train = x_train[:, np.newaxis]
X_plot = x_plot[:, np.newaxis]
# %%
# Now we are ready to create polynomial features and splines, fit on the
# training points and show how well they interpolate.
# plot function
lw = 2
fig, ax = plt.subplots()
ax.set_prop_cycle(
color=["black", "teal", "yellowgreen", "gold", "darkorange", "tomato"]
)
ax.plot(x_plot, f(x_plot), linewidth=lw, label="ground truth")
# plot training points
ax.scatter(x_train, y_train, label="training points")
# polynomial features
for degree in [3, 4, 5]:
model = make_pipeline(PolynomialFeatures(degree), Ridge(alpha=1e-3))
model.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_plot = model.predict(X_plot)
ax.plot(x_plot, y_plot, label=f"degree {degree}")
# B-spline with 4 + 3 - 1 = 6 basis functions
model = make_pipeline(SplineTransformer(n_knots=4, degree=3), Ridge(alpha=1e-3))
model.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_plot = model.predict(X_plot)
ax.plot(x_plot, y_plot, label="B-spline")
ax.legend(loc="lower center")
ax.set_ylim(-20, 10)
plt.show()
# %%
# This shows nicely that higher degree polynomials can fit the data better. But
# at the same time, too high powers can show unwanted oscillatory behaviour
# and are particularly dangerous for extrapolation beyond the range of fitted
# data. This is an advantage of B-splines. They usually fit the data as well as
# polynomials and show very nice and smooth behaviour. They have also good
# options to control the extrapolation, which defaults to continue with a
# constant. Note that most often, you would rather increase the number of knots
# but keep ``degree=3``.
#
# In order to give more insights into the generated feature bases, we plot all
# columns of both transformers separately.
fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(16, 5))
pft = PolynomialFeatures(degree=3).fit(X_train)
axes[0].plot(x_plot, pft.transform(X_plot))
axes[0].legend(axes[0].lines, [f"degree {n}" for n in range(4)])
axes[0].set_title("PolynomialFeatures")
splt = SplineTransformer(n_knots=4, degree=3).fit(X_train)
axes[1].plot(x_plot, splt.transform(X_plot))
axes[1].legend(axes[1].lines, [f"spline {n}" for n in range(6)])
axes[1].set_title("SplineTransformer")
# plot knots of spline
knots = splt.bsplines_[0].t
axes[1].vlines(knots[3:-3], ymin=0, ymax=0.8, linestyles="dashed")
plt.show()
# %%
# In the left plot, we recognize the lines corresponding to simple monomials
# from ``x**0`` to ``x**3``. In the right figure, we see the six B-spline
# basis functions of ``degree=3`` and also the four knot positions that were
# chosen during ``fit``. Note that there are ``degree`` number of additional
# knots each to the left and to the right of the fitted interval. These are
# there for technical reasons, so we refrain from showing them. Every basis
# function has local support and is continued as a constant beyond the fitted
# range. This extrapolating behaviour could be changed by the argument
# ``extrapolation``.
# %%
# Periodic Splines
# ----------------
# In the previous example we saw the limitations of polynomials and splines for
# extrapolation beyond the range of the training observations. In some
# settings, e.g. with seasonal effects, we expect a periodic continuation of
# the underlying signal. Such effects can be modelled using periodic splines,
# which have equal function value and equal derivatives at the first and last
# knot. In the following case we show how periodic splines provide a better fit
# both within and outside of the range of training data given the additional
# information of periodicity. The splines period is the distance between
# the first and last knot, which we specify manually.
#
# Periodic splines can also be useful for naturally periodic features (such as
# day of the year), as the smoothness at the boundary knots prevents a jump in
# the transformed values (e.g. from Dec 31st to Jan 1st). For such naturally
# periodic features or more generally features where the period is known, it is
# advised to explicitly pass this information to the `SplineTransformer` by
# setting the knots manually.
# %%
def g(x):
"""Function to be approximated by periodic spline interpolation."""
return np.sin(x) - 0.7 * np.cos(x * 3)
y_train = g(x_train)
# Extend the test data into the future:
x_plot_ext = np.linspace(-1, 21, 200)
X_plot_ext = x_plot_ext[:, np.newaxis]
lw = 2
fig, ax = plt.subplots()
ax.set_prop_cycle(color=["black", "tomato", "teal"])
ax.plot(x_plot_ext, g(x_plot_ext), linewidth=lw, label="ground truth")
ax.scatter(x_train, y_train, label="training points")
for transformer, label in [
(SplineTransformer(degree=3, n_knots=10), "spline"),
(
SplineTransformer(
degree=3,
knots=np.linspace(0, 2 * np.pi, 10)[:, None],
extrapolation="periodic",
),
"periodic spline",
),
]:
model = make_pipeline(transformer, Ridge(alpha=1e-3))
model.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_plot_ext = model.predict(X_plot_ext)
ax.plot(x_plot_ext, y_plot_ext, label=label)
ax.legend()
fig.show()
# %% We again plot the underlying splines.
fig, ax = plt.subplots()
knots = np.linspace(0, 2 * np.pi, 4)
splt = SplineTransformer(knots=knots[:, None], degree=3, extrapolation="periodic").fit(
X_train
)
ax.plot(x_plot_ext, splt.transform(X_plot_ext))
ax.legend(ax.lines, [f"spline {n}" for n in range(3)])
plt.show()