"""
================================
Nearest Neighbors Classification
================================
This example shows how to use :class:`~sklearn.neighbors.KNeighborsClassifier`.
We train such a classifier on the iris dataset and observe the difference of the
decision boundary obtained with regards to the parameter `weights`.
"""
# %%
# Load the data
# -------------
#
# In this example, we use the iris dataset. We split the data into a train and test
# dataset.
from sklearn.datasets import load_iris
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
iris = load_iris(as_frame=True)
X = iris.data[["sepal length (cm)", "sepal width (cm)"]]
y = iris.target
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, stratify=y, random_state=0)
# %%
# K-nearest neighbors classifier
# ------------------------------
#
# We want to use a k-nearest neighbors classifier considering a neighborhood of 11 data
# points. Since our k-nearest neighbors model uses euclidean distance to find the
# nearest neighbors, it is therefore important to scale the data beforehand. Refer to
# the example entitled
# :ref:`sphx_glr_auto_examples_preprocessing_plot_scaling_importance.py` for more
# detailed information.
#
# Thus, we use a :class:`~sklearn.pipeline.Pipeline` to chain a scaler before to use
# our classifier.
from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier
from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
clf = Pipeline(
steps=[("scaler", StandardScaler()), ("knn", KNeighborsClassifier(n_neighbors=11))]
)
# %%
# Decision boundary
# -----------------
#
# Now, we fit two classifiers with different values of the parameter
# `weights`. We plot the decision boundary of each classifier as well as the original
# dataset to observe the difference.
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn.inspection import DecisionBoundaryDisplay
_, axs = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(12, 5))
for ax, weights in zip(axs, ("uniform", "distance")):
clf.set_params(knn__weights=weights).fit(X_train, y_train)
disp = DecisionBoundaryDisplay.from_estimator(
clf,
X_test,
response_method="predict",
plot_method="pcolormesh",
xlabel=iris.feature_names[0],
ylabel=iris.feature_names[1],
shading="auto",
alpha=0.5,
ax=ax,
)
scatter = disp.ax_.scatter(X.iloc[:, 0], X.iloc[:, 1], c=y, edgecolors="k")
disp.ax_.legend(
scatter.legend_elements()[0],
iris.target_names,
loc="lower left",
title="Classes",
)
_ = disp.ax_.set_title(
f"3-Class classification\n(k={clf[-1].n_neighbors}, weights={weights!r})"
)
plt.show()
# %%
# Conclusion
# ----------
#
# We observe that the parameter `weights` has an impact on the decision boundary. When
# `weights="unifom"` all nearest neighbors will have the same impact on the decision.
# Whereas when `weights="distance"` the weight given to each neighbor is proportional
# to the inverse of the distance from that neighbor to the query point.
#
# In some cases, taking the distance into account might improve the model.