sklearn.utils.extmath.randomized_svd(M, n_components, *, n_oversamples=10, n_iter='auto', power_iteration_normalizer='auto', transpose='auto', flip_sign=True, random_state='warn')[source]

Computes a truncated randomized SVD.

This method solves the fixed-rank approximation problem described in the Halko et al paper (problem (1.5), p5).

M{ndarray, sparse matrix}

Matrix to decompose.


Number of singular values and vectors to extract.

n_oversamplesint, default=10

Additional number of random vectors to sample the range of M so as to ensure proper conditioning. The total number of random vectors used to find the range of M is n_components + n_oversamples. Smaller number can improve speed but can negatively impact the quality of approximation of singular vectors and singular values. Users might wish to increase this parameter up to 2*k - n_components where k is the effective rank, for large matrices, noisy problems, matrices with slowly decaying spectrums, or to increase precision accuracy. See Halko et al (pages 5, 23 and 26).

n_iterint or ‘auto’, default=’auto’

Number of power iterations. It can be used to deal with very noisy problems. When ‘auto’, it is set to 4, unless n_components is small (< .1 * min(X.shape)) in which case n_iter is set to 7. This improves precision with few components. Note that in general users should rather increase n_oversamples before increasing n_iter as the principle of the randomized method is to avoid usage of these more costly power iterations steps. When n_components is equal or greater to the effective matrix rank and the spectrum does not present a slow decay, n_iter=0 or 1 should even work fine in theory (see Halko et al paper, page 9).

Changed in version 0.18.

power_iteration_normalizer{‘auto’, ‘QR’, ‘LU’, ‘none’}, default=’auto’

Whether the power iterations are normalized with step-by-step QR factorization (the slowest but most accurate), ‘none’ (the fastest but numerically unstable when n_iter is large, e.g. typically 5 or larger), or ‘LU’ factorization (numerically stable but can lose slightly in accuracy). The ‘auto’ mode applies no normalization if n_iter <= 2 and switches to LU otherwise.

New in version 0.18.

transposebool or ‘auto’, default=’auto’

Whether the algorithm should be applied to M.T instead of M. The result should approximately be the same. The ‘auto’ mode will trigger the transposition if M.shape[1] > M.shape[0] since this implementation of randomized SVD tend to be a little faster in that case.

Changed in version 0.18.

flip_signbool, default=True

The output of a singular value decomposition is only unique up to a permutation of the signs of the singular vectors. If flip_sign is set to True, the sign ambiguity is resolved by making the largest loadings for each component in the left singular vectors positive.

random_stateint, RandomState instance or None, default=’warn’

The seed of the pseudo random number generator to use when shuffling the data, i.e. getting the random vectors to initialize the algorithm. Pass an int for reproducible results across multiple function calls. See Glossary.

Changed in version 1.2: The previous behavior (random_state=0) is deprecated, and from v1.2 the default value will be random_state=None. Set the value of random_state explicitly to suppress the deprecation warning.


This algorithm finds a (usually very good) approximate truncated singular value decomposition using randomization to speed up the computations. It is particularly fast on large matrices on which you wish to extract only a small number of components. In order to obtain further speed up, n_iter can be set <=2 (at the cost of loss of precision). To increase the precision it is recommended to increase n_oversamples, up to 2*k-n_components where k is the effective rank. Usually, n_components is chosen to be greater than k so increasing n_oversamples up to n_components should be enough.