sklearn.datasets.make_gaussian_quantiles(*, mean=None, cov=1.0, n_samples=100, n_features=2, n_classes=3, shuffle=True, random_state=None)[source]

Generate isotropic Gaussian and label samples by quantile

This classification dataset is constructed by taking a multi-dimensional standard normal distribution and defining classes separated by nested concentric multi-dimensional spheres such that roughly equal numbers of samples are in each class (quantiles of the \(\chi^2\) distribution).

Read more in the User Guide.

meanarray of shape [n_features], optional (default=None)

The mean of the multi-dimensional normal distribution. If None then use the origin (0, 0, …).

covfloat, optional (default=1.)

The covariance matrix will be this value times the unit matrix. This dataset only produces symmetric normal distributions.

n_samplesint, optional (default=100)

The total number of points equally divided among classes.

n_featuresint, optional (default=2)

The number of features for each sample.

n_classesint, optional (default=3)

The number of classes

shuffleboolean, optional (default=True)

Shuffle the samples.

random_stateint, RandomState instance, default=None

Determines random number generation for dataset creation. Pass an int for reproducible output across multiple function calls. See Glossary.

Xarray of shape [n_samples, n_features]

The generated samples.

yarray of shape [n_samples]

The integer labels for quantile membership of each sample.


The dataset is from Zhu et al [1].


  1. Zhu, H. Zou, S. Rosset, T. Hastie, “Multi-class AdaBoost”, 2009.